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Ariela Zycherman

al. 2014 ). Simultaneously with this drop in deforestation rates, Brazil increased its GDP by 32 percent (Federal Republic of Brazil 2015) primarily through agricultural intensification, and specifically through cattle ranching and the production of

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Philippe Jeanneaux, Olivier Aznar, and Christophe Déprés

*Full article is in French

English abstract: This paper proposes to analyze the environmental services provided by farmers in order to clarify the diversity of transactions within the same field. We distinguish two main categories of services: “Service internalization“ corresponding to the internalization of an externality by seeking to modify the joint product, and “Service Delivery“ corresponding to a contract to provide the service. We then cross this characterization with the modes of governance (sectorial vs. territorial) of the environmental services. This analysis allows us, first, to have a better understanding of the dynamics of environmental service supply, and second, to highlight the poor integration of environmental issues in agriculture. The categories generated are illustrated from several empirical studies carried out between 2002 and 2010 in the framework of three research programs.

Spanish abstract: Este documento propone caracterizar los servicios ambientales provistos por los agricultores con el fin de clarificar la diversidad de transacciones dentro de la misma denominación. El artículo distingue dos categorías principales de servicios: “la internalización de servicios“ correspondiente a la internalización de una externalidad a través de modificar el producto conjunto, y “la prestación de servicios“ que corresponde a un contrato de prestación de servicio. Los autores cruzan entonces esta caracterización con los modos de gobierno (sectorial vs. territorial) en el que los servicios ambientales se inscriben; cruce que permite, por un lado, comprender la dinámica de la oferta de servicios ambientales, y por otra parte, remarcar la escasa integración de los problemas ambientales en el sector agrícola. Las categorías producidas son ilustradas a partir de varias investigaciones empíricas llevadas a cabo entre 2002 y 2010 en tres programas de investigación.

French abstract: Cet article propose de caractériser les services environnementaux fournis par les agriculteurs dans le but de clarifier la diversité des transactions qui relèvent d'une même dénomination. Deux catégories principales de services avec quelques déclinaisons ressortent : le « service d'internalisation » visant à internaliser une externalité en cherchant à modifier le produit joint ; le « service prestation » correspondant à un contrat de prestation de service. Nous croisons alors cette caractérisation avec les modes de gouvernance (sectorielle vs territoriale) dans lesquels les services environnementaux s'inscrivent, croisement qui permet, d'une part, de comprendre les dynamiques d'off re de services environnementaux, et d'autre part, de remarquer la faible intégration des problèmes environnementaux dans le secteur agricole. Les catégories produites sont illustrées à partir de plusieurs investigations empiriques réalisées entre 2002 et 2010 dans trois programmes de recherche.

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Manufacturing a Multifunctional Countryside

Operational Landscapes, Urban Desire, and the French State, 1945–1976

Venus Bivar

The story of postwar France, of les trente glorieuses , is typically imagined as a story of economic growth and urban modernity. At the end of the Second World War, France was still a largely rural and agricultural nation. Farming employed a full

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Bonnie White

position in the world. 1 A possible solution to these problems was to emigrate women to the empire, particularly agricultural women, because of the public perception that the independent and unfeminine “Land Girls” were less likely to marry and were, in

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Agricultural Fire or Arson?

Rural Denizens, Forest Administration, and the Colonial Situation in Algeria (1850–1900)

Antonin Plarier

light discursive rivalries, the issue of punishment reveals a snapshot of a society and its conflicts over primary resources. How did the agricultural uses of fire collide with the approaches of rational forestry imposed in nineteenth-century Algeria

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Charlotte Prové, Denise Kemper, and Salma Loudiyi

Over recent decades, we have witnessed an increase in the number of urban agriculture initiatives (UAIs) across the Western world. The understanding of urban agriculture (UA) has shifted from urban food production practices in and around cities for

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From Urban Agriculture to Urban Food

Food System Analysis Based on Interaction Between Research, Policy, and Society

Heidrun Moschitz, Jan Landert, Christian Schader, and Rebekka Frick

Urban Agriculture in the Urban Food System Urban agriculture practice involves a new way of thinking about food, including a critique of the predominant food system. It plays a major role in making food visible and can thus support a general

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From behind stall doors

Farming the Eastern German countryside in the animal welfare era

Amy Leigh Field

-industrialized agricultural lobbying group “Wir haben es satt!” (We've had enough!). 1 The protesters demanded not better housing or national infrastructure but better treatment of farmed animals and a greater share of organic production in the farm sector—both desires

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Carl Strikwerda

of agricultural products in world trade, the level of migration, the proportion of foreign-owned utilities, and the flow of capital as a share of national income, the pre–World War I era was more globalized than our world is today. 18 This global

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Economic Transitions and Land Ownership

Challenging Traditions among Rural Yezidis in Post-Soviet Armenia

Hamlet Melkumyan and Roman Hovsepyan

The Yezidis of Armenia, traditionally considered transhumant pastoralists, have been changing their economic habits over the past century. Nowadays, they are more engaged in agriculture than they were a century ago. The social and cultural backgrounds of these transformations are discussed, showing the involvement of the treatment of the Armenians and the adaptive character of the Yezidis’ economy. Presently, the Yezidis practise animal breeding and plant cultivation in parallel, using the human resources available in their family. The ongoing transformations in the economy and their engagement in agriculture are challenging the conservative lifestyle of the Yezidi community. Thus, the people who have shifted to the agrarian economy are seen as outsiders in the traditional framework and are perceived to be of low prestige.