On 1-2 June 2015, Poland’s historic city of Kraków, under the auspices of the Ministry of Sport and Tourism, hosted the scientific conference, Tourism Anthropology: Heritage and Perspectives. The conference was organized by Jagiellonian University’s Institute of Intercultural Studies, and the Department of Tourism and Recreation of the University of Physical Education in Kraków, and aimed to draw up a new framework for tourism anthropology. The participating scholars focused on the relationships between man and culture in the context of traveling, which is becoming an increasingly important part of life for the modern man. Guided by the invited keynote speakers and Scientific Committee members—Nelson Graburn of the University of California–Berkeley, Józef Lipiec of Jagiellonian University, Anna Wieczorkiewicz of Warsaw University, and Ryszard Winiarski of the University of Physical Education in Kraków—the conference participants addressed themes pertaining to man as “homo viator,” the experiential dimensions of tourism, relationships between hosts and guests (and other protagonists), gender in tourism, the real and the virtual, forms of cultural tourism, tourism and culture change, the language of tourism and traveling in cultural contexts, and, finally, methodologies and scholarly practice in social scientific research on tourism.
Heritage and Perspectives
Labor as a common denominator
Most of the anthropology of tourism has focused either on authenticity or on the commoditization of culture. Furthermore, tourism has been looked at as a service sector and, at most, as an urban strategy. Few authors have investigated the organization of (in)formal labor in the tourism industry outside the wage form. I address this gap by looking at the living and dead labor that the production of cultural heritage is about. I argue that the tourism industry transforms long-labored spaces and existing collective use values into commodities. After illustrating this argument with sketches from the Ciutat de Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Spain), I conclude that the relation between the dead labor and the living labor that produce heritage determines people’s differential access to its commoditized outcome.
Franz Wojciechowski, Sarah Stohlman, Djamila Schans, David O'Kane, Ludwien Meeuwesen and Huub de Jonge
Hermanten Kate, Travels and researches in Native North America, 1882–1883
Rainer Ohliger, Karen Schönwälder, and Triadafilos Triadafilopoulos, European encounters: migrants, migration and European societies since 1945
Elizabeth Murphy-Lejeune, Student mobility and narrative in Europe: the new strangers
Marja J. Spierenburg, Strangers, spirits and land reforms: conflicts about land in Dande, Northern Zimbabwe
Renée R. Shield and Stanley M. Aronson, Aging in today’s world: conversations between an anthropologist and a physician
Shinji Yamashita, Bali and beyond: explorations in the anthropology of tourism
Border Medicine and Health Tourism
This essay exemplifies a particular approach to the field of health tourism, whereby the anthropology of tourism and medical anthropology can be used in conjunction. The serious business of healing is not usually associated with the pleasures of relaxation; however, Czech spas have historically been sites of both healing and leisure for visitors. Building on the suggestion of Veijola and Jokinen (1994), the body of the tourist is made the centre of this study. The bodies of patient-tourists at Czech health spas undergo various healing regimens, and their bodies signify a negotiation of national and cultural identities. Just as Bunzl (2000) considers bodies as constituting European cultural landscapes, this essay considers the ways in which German patient bodies at Czech health spas constitute a changing national, political and cultural relationship at a 'border' of Europe.
From Colonial Travelogues to Tourist Blogs in Southwestern Ethiopia
The question of the cultural Other has always been central in the anthropology of tourism. The predominant way in which the Other appears in writings about Africa is as a manifestation of primitiveness. But the concept of the primitive tends to be treated in this literature in general terms, rather than analyzed through specific case studies. This article presents an image-dependent historiographical case study of the concept of the primitive through an analysis of colonial travelogues, hunting stories, guide and coffee table books and tourist blogs relating to the lower Omo Valley of southwestern Ethiopia. The article investigates how the trope of the primitive has been used as a politically and culturally powerful ideology and argues that a visual-historical methodology is an effective tool to explicate the social history of the primitive, an idea that draws many Western tourists to visit remote corners of Africa and seek out exotic tribes. The article is based on an extended period of anthropological field research and an extensive analysis of secondary sources.