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“Algeria for the Algerians”

Public Education and Settler Identity in the Early Third Republic

Kyle Francis

played by settlers themselves in the metropolitan attempt to mold their society. Although the revolt at the normal school unfolded a year before President Léon Gambetta’s famous pronouncement that “anticlericalism is not an article for export [to the

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Zvi Jonathan Kaplan

The Dreyfus Affair evolved into a vital symbol for the proponents of the separation of church and state. While the clerical anti-Dreyfusards turned the arrest and conviction of Alfred Dreyfus into an attack on both Jews and the Republic, the anticlerical Dreyfusards successfully used the Dreyfus Affair to achieve their political objectives. While for practical purposes Jewish leaders were more aligned with the anticlerical camp, they did not enthusiastically welcome the law on separation. If one applies the label “Dreyfusard” to those who cloaked their anticlericalism in their battle to rehabilitate Dreyfus, then the representatives of French Jewry, who did not have a radical position to cloak, were not genuine Dreyfusards. They were not driven by ideology but rather by pragmatic political and social considerations resulting from the rise of anti-Semitism emanating from clerical corners. For Jewish leaders, separation was a byproduct of the Affair. For the anticlerical Dreyfusards, separation was the goal.

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Jean Baubérot

The question of “civil religion” constitutes the impensé of French secularism,and this is necessarily so due to the term's ideological function. Using Jean-Jacques Rousseau's definition--revisited by sociologists--, this article considersthe relationship between secularism and civil religion at two periods. Duringthe period 1901-1908, two types of secularism opposed each other: the first,close to civil religion, was dominant until 1904; the second, which emerged in1905-1908 (the laws on the separation of Church and State) distanced itselffrom it. The second period is the beginning of the twenty-first century, whenelements of a “lay-Catholic” civil religion are thwarted, however, by severalfactors. In conclusion, the author offers several avenues of comparisonbetween American civil religion and French civil religion.

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Kim Knibbe, Brenda Bartelink, Jelle Wiering, Karin B. Neutel, Marian Burchardt, and Joan Wallach Scott

broader support through appealing to secular reason, science, and the notion of equal rights for all—and they often were and still are ‘anti-religious’, or rather ‘anti-clerical’. But let us also not forget, with Scott, that new ways of dealing with

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C.W.R.D. Moseley

a later age adjusting their Chaucers to fit their own agendas, and their preconceptions. In a more brash way, a radical, anticlerical ‘Plowman’s Tale’, originally from around 1400, is included in his edition of 1532 by Thynne, 4 which suggests

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Harriet Kennedy, Elizabeth (Biz) Nijdam, Logan Labrune, and Chris Reyns-Chikuma

least two more reasons. First, it gives a perspective on some specific French cultural traditions – anti-clericalism, laïcité [secularism] – in connection with the world of caricatures and comics, as well as some of the tensions they create in French

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Elizabeth C. Macknight

passed the Law on Associations (1901), which required religious orders to obtain government authorization or be forcibly dissolved. Anticlericalism intensified as a result of the Dreyfus Affair during the 1890s; then in 1905 the law was passed for the

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Nicole Hudgins

cathedrals as wounds on the body of French civilization. Loving descriptions of damaged religious property obscured the recent, and heated, conflict between the Catholic Right and the anticlerical Left in France before the war. 40 Indeed, “pictures of

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The Origins of the Stanley Hoffmann We Knew

Some Comparisons on his Vichy Years with My Family Story

Peter Gourevitch

the early 1940s, and my lycée classmates of Neuilly in the late 1930s … I had always felt treated as French, particularly by my teachers….” 40 His Jewish mother was anticlerical, and Hoffmann himself did not identify much with this part of his

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Marrying into the Nation

Immigrant Bachelors, French Bureaucrats, and the Conjugal Politics of Naturalization in the Third Republic

Nimisha Barton

Early Modern France (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010), chap. 2, especially. 3 Anti-bachelor sentiment often dovetailed neatly with anticlerical sentiment during the French Revolution. See Suzanne Desan, The Family on Trial in Revolutionary