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Campesinos del Nudo del Paramillo

Entre la guerra y el desarrollismo

Andrés Tavera Franco

*Full article is in Spanish

English abstract: This article examines collective actions led by peasant communities in the Paramillo Massif in Colombia. It juxtaposes these locally defined development proposals focused on maintaining the balance between society and the environment with dominant neoliberal development models implemented by the Colombian State that promote developmentalism and seemingly exacerbate armed conflict in the country. The article frames this analysis within the context of political ecology, with the purpose of questioning the ideological bases for large-scale development that negatively impacts local communities both socially and environmentally.

Spanish abstract: Este artículo examina acciones colectivas lideradas por comunidades campesinas en el Nudo del Paramillo, Colombia. El autor yuxtapone estas propuestas de desarrollo definidas localmente centradas en mantener el equilibrio entre la sociedad y el medio ambiente, con modelos dominantes de desarrollo neoliberal implementados por el Estado colombiano que promueven el desarrollismo y aparentemente exacerban los conflictos armados en el país. El artículo enmarca este análisis dentro del contexto de la ecología política, con el propósito de cuestionar las bases ideológicas para el desarrollo a gran escala que impacta negativamente a las comunidades locales tanto social como ambientalmente.

French abstract: Cet article examine les actions collectives menées par des communautés paysannes du Nudo del Paramillo, en Colombie. Il juxtapose les propositions de développement définies à l’échelle locale et centrées sur le maintien d’un équilibre entre la société et l’environnement avec les modèles de développement néolibéral mis en oeuvre par l’État colombien qui promeuvent le développementalisme et exacerbent apparemment le conflit armé dans le pays. L’article formule cette analyse dans le contexte de l’écologie politique, dans le but de questionner les bases idéologiques d’un développement à grande échelle qui a des impacts négatifs sur les communautés aussi bien sur le plan social qu’environnemental.

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La política migratoria de Ecuador hacia Colombia

Entre la integración y la “contención“

Marcela Ceballos Medina

*Full article is in Spanish

English abstract: This article examines Ecuadoran policy toward the forced migration of Colombians to Ecuador. It identifies the main changes in Ecuadoran immigration policy, including asylum, for the period 1996-2008. To do this, the author examines two dimensions of immigration policy: the normative framework and political practices (implementation of the normative framework). The article tries to answer the following questions: What are the main changes in Ecuadoran immigration policy toward Colombian forced migration? How can we explain those changes? The author suggests that the policy oscillates between regional or binational integration and border contention. The variables that explain those changes are: (1) the magnitude of Colombian migration; (2) the transnational dynamics of the internal armed conflict along the Colombia-Ecuador border and the political context in Ecuador; and (3) the international relations of Colombia and Ecuador and the political agenda of the South American region.

Spanish abstract: El propósito del artículo es examinar la respuesta del Estado ecuatoriano a las migraciones forzadas de colombianos hacia ese país, identificando los principales cambios en la política de inmigración (incluida la política de asilo y refugio) de Ecuador durante el periodo 1996- 2008. Para ello, se observan dos dimensiones de la política migratoria ecuatoriana: 1) el marco normativo y 2) las prácticas políticas para la implementación de las normas. La autora se propone responder a las preguntas ¿Cuáles son los principales cambios en la política migratoria del Estado ecuatoriano hacia las migraciones colombianas? ¿Cómo se explican esos cambios? Concluye que la política migratoria de Ecuador hacia las migraciones colombianas oscila entre una posición integracionista y abierta a la inmigración y una política de cierre de fronteras y contención del conflicto armado dentro del territorio colombiano. Las variables que explican dichos cambios son: 1) el creciente flujo de migrantes colombianos hacia Ecuador, 2) las dinámicas transnacionales del conflicto armado colombiano en la frontera y el contexto político al interior del Ecuador, y 3) las relaciones político-diplomáticas entre los dos países y la agenda política en la región suramericana.

French abstract: Cet article examine la politique de l'Équateur concernant l'immigration forcée de Colombiens vers ce pays. Il identifie les changements principaux effectués dans la politique d'immigration équatorienne (en incluant la politique publique d'asile) pour la période 1996-2008. Dans ce but, l'auteur examine deux dimensions de la politique publique d'immigration : 1) le cadre normatif, et 2) les pratiques politiques (la mise en œuvre du cadre normatif). L'auteur souhaite répondre aux questions suivantes : quels sont les changements principaux dans la politique d'immigration équatorienne concernant les migrations colombiennes forcées ? Comment pouvons-nous expliquer ces changements ? L'hypothèse est que la politique d'immigration de l'Équateur oscille entre l'intégration régionale ou binationale et le contrôle des frontières. Les variables perme ant d'expliquer ces changements sont : 1) l'ampleur des migrations colombiennes vers l'Équateur ; 2) les dynamiques transnationales du conflit armé interne au niveau de la frontière colombo-équatorienne et le contexte politique en Équateur ; et 3) les relations internationales entre la Colombie et l'Équateur ainsi que l'agenda politique de la région sud-américaine.

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Conflicts in Children’s Everyday Lives

Fresh Perspectives on Protracted Crisis in Lebanon

Erik van Ommering

, the authors argue. Anthropologists, too, have sought to broaden academic understanding of children’s plight in situations of armed conflict beyond the dominant biomedical paradigm as advanced by psychology, psychiatry and medicine (e.g. Boyden and de

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Looking for the child soldier

The judicial investigation in the case of Thomas Lubanga Dyilo

Milena Jakšić

uses suffering as a means to legitimise intervention in armed conflicts. The indignation aroused by this victim figure has led to the adoption of a series of international conventions since the late 1970s designed not only to protect the rights of

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Regime Collapse and Revolution

A Response to John Dunn

Hugo Slim

political commitment and a historical period between 1789 and 1989 is rather baffling from where I sit in an organization engaged daily in armed conflicts around the world. Dunn’s ingredients for revolution are well chosen. His insistence seems right that

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Gilad Ben-Nun

, and Deuteronomy). As the biblical sources presented in this article clearly demonstrate, commensurate to modern-day distinctions, the distinction between manmade causes for human plight (war, armed conflict, and persecution) and natural forces (such as

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Beatriz Manz

In the 1980s, Guatemala's state-sponsored violence reached genocidal proportions and led to community ruptures, endemic fear, deepened distrust, and unprecedented levels of daily violence that have continued into the post-war period. Tragically, the war's resolution has not ended the country's volatility and insecurity. Reconciliation is challenging and requires a much deeper structural overhaul. It is problematical for a society that has been created on a rigid, ethnic-based, and highly divisive foundation now to take steps toward reclaiming a non-existent pre-war period of concord. An inclusive and just society, which respects the fundamental human rights of all, is essential yet sorely lacking. Moving in this direction is hindered by the historic impunity enjoyed by the military and the powerful, as well as a dysfunctional judicial system in need of reform.

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Between Labor Migration and Forced Displacement

Wartime Mobilities in the Burkina Faso–Côte d’Ivoire Transnational Space

Jesper Bjarnesen

At the turn of the new millennium, the once prosperous West African country of Côte d’Ivoire embarked on a decade that would see an enduring economic and political crisis degenerate further into armed conflict. The fall from grace of the Ivorian

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Navigating Unpredictable Sites

Methodological Implications of Positioning during and after Fieldwork in Conflict Societies

Eva Gerharz

of ethnic polarization due to (armed) conflict. While a whole range of authors have inquired into the difficulties of applying ethnographic methods in war zones (e.g., Hoffman 2003 ; Howell 1997 ; Nordstrom and Robben 1995 ), the focus here is

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Liminality and Missing Persons

Encountering the Missing in Postwar Bosnia-Herzegovina

Laura Huttunen

has happened to him. I never heard about him again . —Bosniak woman, born in 1965 in Prijedor, Bosnia-Herzegovina In many armed conflicts, forced disappearances and hiding the bodies of victims of mass atrocities are used strategically to create