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George Holmes

Planetary changes associated with the Anthropocene challenge longestablished ideas and approaches within biodiversity conservation, such as wilderness, wildness, native and exotic species, species and ecosystem diversity, and what counts as success in biodiversity conservation. This article reviews and analyzes how the Anthropocene is being used within the literature on biodiversity conservation. It finds that the idea of a new epoch has been used to frame a broad range of new approaches and concepts to understanding and stemming the loss of biodiversity. These new ideas are diverse and sometimes contradictory, embracing a range of ethical values and positions. Yet the term Anthropocene is not widely used within the biodiversity conservation literature. Despite the cross-disciplinary nature of the Anthropocene, interdisciplinary research on these new concepts and approach is rare, and the insights of the humanities are almost entirely absent. Debates about conservation in the Anthropocene are a continuation of long-running controversies within conservation, such as how it should relate to human development, and over the concept of wilderness. Overall, this review demonstrates that the literature on biodiversity conservation in the Anthropocene is not well established, is both diverse and new, while echoing longstanding debates in conservation, and it indicates the direction such literature might take in future.

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Brendon M. H. Larson

Mark W. Schwartz . 2007 . “ A Framework for Debate of Assisted Migration in an Era of Climate Change .” Conservation Biology 21 ( 2 ): 297 – 302 . McNeely , Jeffrey A. 2013 . “ Global Efforts to Address the Wicked Problem of Invasive Alien

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Kira Mahamud Angulo and Yovana Hernández Laina

: Catarata, 2012), 76. 55 The existence of a process of “assisted migration” was confirmed by the Spanish Institute of Emigration and by the passing of two migration laws (the “Ley de Bases de la Emigración Española” of 1960 and the “Ley de Ordenación de la