have led to narrowed curricula and concomitant instructional practices and priorities, which are not inclusive of the texts and practices preferred by boys in general ( Blair and Sanford 2004 ; Haddix 2010 ; Morrell 2009 ; Smith and Wilhelm 2002
The Impact of Two Strategies
Stiles X. Simmons and Karen M. Feathers
Shakespeare was keenly affected by the lives of the boys who played the parts of women in his plays. Evidence for his understanding and compassion is found in the speeches of those characters who cross-dress female to male. By a double negation of his gender, the boy actor is given an opportunity to speak for himself as well for the female character he is portraying. The examples are Julia as Sebastian in The Two Gentlemen of Verona, Portia as Balthazar and Nerissa as both the young lawyer’s clerk and Jessica in The Merchant of Venice, Viola as Cesario in Twelfth Night, Imogen as Fidele in Cymbeline, and especially Rosalind as Ganymede in As You Like It. I argue that what they were given to say by Shakespeare reveals the experience of being a boy, not only in early modern England or ancient Greece (where all parts were also played by males), but also in our time. I suggest the treatment of boys in the theatre is mirrored by the treatment of boys today. In those instances where doubled impersonation was written into Shakespeare’s plays, we have a unique opportunity to hear boys tell us about themselves. As with so much else that is timeless insight, the bard understood and articulated the experience of being a boy. Taken together, the utterances of his “boys” tell us how it is to be a boy.
Consent and Gendered Power Dynamics in Sex
Katrín Ólafsdottir and Jón Ingvar Kjaran
boys in Iceland are constituted by the dominant discourses of heterosexuality and consent. In this article, we will provide some research-based implications of the concept of sexual consent with emphasis on heterosexuality and how young men understand
Our longitudinal studies of boys over the past two decades have revealed that boys have and/or want intimate male friendships and that these relationships are critical for their mental health. Yet as they reach late adolescence, boys become wary of their male best friends even as they continue to want emotional intimacy with these peers. As the pressures of stereotypic manhood intensify, boys disconnect from the very relationships that support their mental health. The numerous challenges faced by boys in school and at home are in part a reflection of this disconnection.
Heteronormativity in Contemporary Books on Fathering and Raising Boys
Damien W. Riggs
Over the past decade a rapidly growing number of books have been published on fathering and raising boys. Whilst these books purport to simply describe boyhood, this article suggests that they are in fact actively engaged in constructing boyhood and in making available to boys particular gender and sexual identities. In an analysis of ten such books, the article demonstrates how they are informed by a range of heteronormative and homophobic assumptions about boys and masculinity. Particular focus is given to constructions of the “average boy,” the assumption that such boys are “naturally” attracted to girls, discourses of the “sissy” boy, and accounts of gay boys. The analysis provided suggests that constructions of the first two rely upon the negative constructions of the latter two. Implications for the ways in which we understand boys, fathering and families are drawn from the findings. Recommendations are made for research agendas that not only respect and include gay boys and their parents, but also celebrate the experiences of non-gender normative, non-heterosexual boys.
Cormac Ó Beaglaoich, Mark Kiss, Clíodhna Ní Bheaglaoich, and Todd G. Morrison
experience of heterosexual boys (e.g., “Hugging other men is difficult for me”). In response to this question, participants felt it was important to specify the context in which the hug occurs: “If you’re hugging after you score a goal or you’re hugging
Man Interest and Masculine Embodiment
Kathrine Vitus and Nathalie Perregaard
In this article, we explore friendships between 7–10-year-old boys who live with their mothers only and voluntary adults, which are arranged by a Danish volunteer organization called Children's Adult Friends (CAF). Drawing on qualitative empirical
How Fathers Hope to Configure Their Sons’ Masculinity
In The Men and the Boys , Raewyn Connell (2000) argues that it is important to study the process of configuration of the practices that comprise masculinity and to investigate the circumstances and settings in which gender patterns are more
Reflections on The Men and the Boys
documented, in other words, the process by which boys became men. This was four years before Raewyn Connell's field-shifting book, The Men and the Boys, was published—a book that provided key insights that helped me to understand what I saw in that
This paper reports on case studies spanning four consecutive years (2005-2008) focused on addressing and challenging Australian primary school boys’ disengagement with English, particularly reading, using an action research process informed by both quantitative and qualitative data. Primary participants were all male and ranged from 8 to 11 years of age. Boys were identified and selected for each case study based on the questionnaire and interview results from whole grade surveys of both males and females. The data results identified the boys with negative views of literacy and boys who identified reading as being a feminine activity, thereby narrowing their perceptions of masculinity. These boys were involved in a reading/mentoring program with high profile professional Rugby League players. The celebrity rugby league players were involved in ten weekly mentoring and reading sessions with male participants each year. These sessions focused on building positive male identity, shifting negative attitudes to reading and challenging negative stereotypes of both professional sportsmen and boys as readers. After each of the case studies, quantitative and qualitative data indicated a positive change in the participants’ attitudes towards reading as well as their perceived stereotypes of males as readers and increased involvement in voluntary reading.