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'If I Receive It, It Is a Gift; If I Demand It, Then It Is a Bribe'

On the Local Meaning of Economic Transactions in Post-Soviet Ukraine

Abel Polese

Challenging the main reports of corruption in Ukraine, this article proposes that most of the 'economic transactions' that are reported as bribe taking have a deeper meaning and can be analysed within the framework of gift exchange proposed by Marcel Mauss. This paper thus focuses on the three alleged most 'corrupted' places in Ukraine: a university, a hospital and a police control post, in order to develop a detailed analysis of the meanings behind these transactions. Furthermore, it examines the particular role that social actors take within these arrangements. Finally, I propose the recognition of a grey zone between corruptions as evident in the ethnographic examples analysed in the course of this paper.

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On “tribes” and bribes

“Iraq tribal study,” al-Anbar's awakening, and social science

Roberto J. González

The concept of the “tribe” has captured the imagination of military planners, who have been inspired partly by social scientists. Interest in tribes stems from events in Iraq's al-Anbar province, where the US military has co-opted Sunni “tribal” leaders. Some social scientists have capitalized on these developments by doing contract work for the Pentagon. For example, the “Iraq tribal study”—prepared by a private company consisting of anthropologists and political scientists among others—suggests employing colonial-era techniques (such as divide and conquer) for social control. It also advocates bribing local leaders, a method that has become part of the US military's pacification strategy. Such imperial policing techniques are likely to aggravate armed conflict between and among ethnic groups and religious sects. Observers report that the US strategy is creating a dangerous situation resembling the Lebanese civil war, raising ethical questions about social scientists' involvement in these processes.

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The Joinovici Affair

The Stavisky of the Fourth Republic

Jeffrey Mehlman

This essay follows the strange career in France of the Bessarabian Jew, Joseph Joinovici, before, during, and after the Second World War. A corrupt but exceedingly talented dealer in scrap metal before the war, he was officially branded an “economically worthwhile Jew” by the occupying forces and quickly amassed a considerable fortune. He was also a leading associate of the French Gestapo leaders Henri Lafont and Pierre Bony, but appears to have devoted a considerable portion of his wealth to bribing German officials into releasing a number of potential victims. A credible claim has been made that he was a principal financier of the insurrection that issued in the Liberation of Paris. Particular attention is paid to the claim by the philosopher Pierre Boutang that the eccentric Joinovici was the exemplary citizen of France's Fourth Republic.

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Thom Brooks

incentives candidates for elected office might offer voters, including where these include wrongful manipulation. II We begin with the distinction between bribery and vote buying: vote buying has been described as ‘bribing’ the electorate, for example

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Transit Migration in Niger

Stemming the Flows of Migrants, but at What Cost?

Sébastien Moretti

and services only, with much more money paid in bribes along the migratory route ( Hall 2017 ). This represents a considerable source of income in a country where half of the population lives below the poverty line ( World Bank 2017 ). When the author

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The Rule of Law as a Condition for Development Toward Sustainability

Toward a New Legally Oriented Environment at a Global Level

Giovanni Tartaglia Polcini

will often generate policies and regulations that are not intended to improve the overall economic or political environment. Rather, they benefit a few who are close to the decision makers or those who are bribing government officials to pass a

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A Case of “Good, but Could Do Better”

Dan Hough

filter into legal and procedural changes, and, until 1999, it was, for example, perfectly legal for companies in Germany to bribe foreign officials to gain contracts. Furthermore, these bribes were even tax deductible. By the turn of the twenty

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The Mistakes That Make People

Reconceptualizing Power and Resistance in Rwanda

Will Rollason

Moreover, while such informal resolutions may often benefit people, in this case, an informal solution led to Alexis losing out on compensation. Note also that no one mentioned the possibility that the police had been bribed, so it does not seem that

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Competing Visions

The Visual Culture of the Congo Free State and Fin de Siècle Europe

Matthew G. Stanard

that I couldn't bribe.” 60 Twain here claims the king bribed people to suppress negative stories, and he has the king equating objectionable propaganda with the emerging culture of snapshot photography following the appearance of the first Kodaks as

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“Real, practical emancipation”?

Subaltern politics and insurgent citizenship in contemporary India

Alf Gunvald Nilsen

illegal has in turn been used by forest guards as a pretext for extracting bribes from the Bhil communities. One Bhil activist explained the workings of these practices as follows: “The forest guards would take chanda as and when it pleased them