The Swiss system of direct democracy is in many ways paradoxical. The federal structure counteracts the formation of centralizing state hierarchies and protects the egalitarian representation of local political interests. Simultaneously, local political structures can have hierarchical and exclusionary effects, especially when democratic processes are turned into values. This article considers the tensions between egalitarian and hierarchical values in Swiss democratic structures in the wake of the rise of anti-foreigner and anti-EU passions harnessed by extreme right-wing parties. These tensions are heightened in the context of global processes that are transforming the structures of the state, as corporate power undermines state apparatuses with the potential to subvert democratic practices.
Egalitarianism and Hierarchy in a Model Democracy
Public Schooling and Political Changes in Early Nineteenth Century Switzerland
nineteenth century. 4 This article focuses on the relationship between the emergence of the nation-state and the need for public education, with the aim of forming “ideal citizens,” in the first half of the nineteenth century in the Swiss canton of Fribourg
1906h. In Bulletin des bibliothèques populaires, mai : 70–71. J. PAYOT. – Les Idées de M. Bourru (délégué cantonal). – Paris, Armand Colin, 1904, in-18, VIII–399 p., 3 fr. 50.
The Swiss Experience
Ueli Haefeli, Fritz Kobi and Ulrich Seewer
Based on analysis of two case studies in the Canton of Bern, this article examines the question of knowledge transfer from history to transport policy and planning in the recent past in Switzerland. It shows that for several reasons, direct knowledge transfer did not occur. In particular, historians have seldom become actively involved in transport planning and policy discourses, probably partly because the academic system offers no incentive to do so. However, historical knowledge has certainly influenced decision-making processes indirectly, via personal reflection of the actors in the world of practice or through Switzerland's strongly developed modes of political participation. Because the potential for knowledge transfer to contribute to better policy solutions has not been fully utilized, we recommend strengthening the role of existing interfaces between science and policy.
adherents, Gallic superiors’ victories over subordinates demonstrated that intimidation, not consent, dominated wartime French society. 13 The 1917 rehabilitation of Third Army Picardy cantons addresses and informs these debates. This article departs from
of the Parsee private merchants 4 in the foreign enclave of Canton (today’s Guangzhou), the only Chinese port that was open to international trade between 1700 and 1842 under the Qing Dynasty’s Canton system ( Van Dyke 2007 ). In Canton, many Parsee
Food System Analysis Based on Interaction Between Research, Policy, and Society
Heidrun Moschitz, Jan Landert, Christian Schader and Rebekka Frick
what share of the food that is consumed in Basel is produced regionally. The definition of “region” in this study encompassed the cantons of Basel City, Basel District, Aargau, and Solothurn. The products analyzed included apples, carrots, milk, beef
Nicholas F. Russell
). As often happened when Europeans voyaged to visit the emperor, de Goyer and de Keyser started at Canton and traveled up the Grand Canal to Peking. They set sail from Batavia in two ships on 14 June 1655. On 18 July, they set anchor off Canton and were
Wolfgang Merkel and Jean-Paul Gagnon
are much more liberal than the majority of electors in a referendum. If there’s a referendum in a canton, village or a town on immigration then the people are more restrictive and reluctant to accept immigration. In those cantons where immigration
Of Witnesses, Martyrs, and Plural Pasts in Post-war Bosnia-Herzegovina
and commemorative events have been launched, organized, and institutionalized by municipalities, cantons, and the official Muslim body, the Islamic Community (Islamska Zajednica). Critical events have entered the textbooks, television programs, and