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A Gloomy Carnival of Freedom

Sex, Gender, and Emotions among Polish Displaced Person in the Aftermath of World War II

Katarzyna Nowak

carnivalesque transgression to describe the atmosphere of the liberation and the process of acclimatizing to the new DP life. I use the example of invigorated sexuality and its further normalization in the institution of marriage, attempts at reforming unmarried

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Heterotopia or Carnival Site?

Rethinking the Ethnographic Museum

Jen Walklate

This article seeks to explore the Bakhtinian carnivalesque in relation to museums generally and to ethnographic museums in particular. The Bakhtinian carnivalesque is based on antihierarchicalism, laughter, embodiment, and temporality, and it has the potential to move museums away from a problematic association with heterotopia. Instead, the carnivalesque allows ethnographic museums to be recognized as active agents in the sociopolitical worlds around them, offers a lens through which to examine and move forward some current practices, and forces museums to reconsider their position and necessity. This article also reflects on the value of transdisciplinary approaches in museum studies, positioning literary theory in particular as a valuable analytical resource.

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Liturgical Time in Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales

Meditated, Measured and Manipulated

Alireza Mahdipour, Hossein Pirnajmuddin, and Pyeaam Abbasi

Liturgies are communal in nature, and in the context of the medieval Christian economy of time they are developed and utilised to quantify, consecrate, control, utilise and unify time for the comprehensive end of the welfare of the society, both in the Here and in the Here-after. The liturgy was a social institution, and functioned for anniversaries, holy days, holidays and rituals that were the means of medieval social integrity. In the economy of socio-political and ethical life, the medieval Church linked the sacred to the secular by means of the liturgy. They were used for meditation, as well as a measurement of time, and arguably they were manipulated to parody or satirise the strictly hierarchal estates of the medieval society. Though one of the least liturgical books of his time, Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales is framed by the liturgical institution of the pilgrimage. Actually a pilgrim travelogue, it depicts the secularisation of liturgy and its appropriation for social control, and paradoxically, a carnivalesque celebration of the reversal of social hierarchy.

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Never Mind the Ballots

The Edible Ballot Society and the Performance of Citizenship

Matthew Hayes

and a sense of the carnivalesque. The Canadian government took these performances seriously. A number of the edible balloters were subsequently charged with crimes under the Canada Elections Act, according to which it is an offense to destroy a ballot

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The Colonial State and Carnival

The Complexity and Ambiguity of Carnival in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

Christoph Kohl

performances. Anxious about the fact that the Africans and creoles did not conform to the images and roles that were intended for them, colonial rulers attempted to suppress carnivalesque activities as a subversive form of mimesis. As a result, the former were

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The Democratic Grotesque

Distortion, Liminality, and Dissensus in Post-Revolutionary Tunisia

Charis Boutieri

). Along similar lines with Das, research on carnivalesque electoral campaigns in Iceland and Lithuania ( Boyer 2013 ; Klumbyte 2014 ) and direct democratic politics in the United States ( Graeber 2011 ; Tancons 2014 ) has firmly situated disguise

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The Bi-Cycling Mr Hoopdriver

Counter-Sporting Victorian Reviving the Carnivalesque

Yoonjoung Choi

In much of his work, H. G. Wells consciously criticises the conservativeness of contemporary sports such as cricket and emphasises cycling as a recreational sport which contributes to the democratisation of social class and gender. This stance is apparent in Wells's first social novel, The Wheels of Chance (1896) which captures the fin-de-siècle passion for cycling but also its social impact. For Wells, Victorian team/spectacle sports such as rugby, football, horseracing, and boxing are overtly competitive, promoting gentlemen's amateur sportsmanship and masculinity. This essay argues that The Wheels of Chance, by featuring recreational cycling as the main motif and casting an unfit draper as the protagonist, is an indirect criticism of gentlemen's sporting activities. It creates a space of amusement where strict rules are shunned in favour of casual pastime, generating carnivalesque games and performances in the Bakhtinian sense. It explores the author's will to change the social order through the carnivalesque, in the ambivalent depiction of Mr Hoopdriver's bi-cycling as play.

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Annick Pellegrin

While religious celebrations during the Renaissance served to reaffirm society's hegemony, the carnival was a means of freeing oneself from social norms, hierarchy and privileges. As it questions hegemony, the carnival sometimes leads to changes. Picaresque literature emerged in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Spain. In its early stages, the picaresque was a strongly satirical and ironic 'countergenre' to mystic literature and romance genres. Like the carnivalesque, picaresque literature questions the ruling classes.2 Tintin is mostly studied either in terms of its ideological commitment or in terms of its fidelity to stylistic features. The aim of this paper differs from such concerns: it is to consider Tintin et les Picaros as a satire of politics. This paper explores the constant pairing of politics and carnival in Tintin et les Picaros, as well as the representation of both through amalgams and imports. Using Bakhtin's theory, the picaresque and Latin American history, this paper addresses the central question: how are politics and carnival represented in Tintin et les Picaros and to what extent is the album picaresque in this respect?

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Instrumentalising Media Memories

The Second World War According to Achtung Zelig! (2004)

Maaheen Ahmed

carnivalesque, ranging from its original, medieval manifestations to the circus, which preserves the remnants of carnivalesque logic and aesthetics; 14 comics, in general, which incorporate, to varying degrees, an aesthetics of the hypercommodified, 15 owing

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Matthew Bradney

moment’ (pp. 125–6). This is a politics that rejects organisation, leadership, and the like in favour of the organic, unrestrained, wild, and sometimes carnivalesque behavior of the crowd event. Yet, as Dean states, ‘dominant power always allows for the