the ‘theory of intelligence and categories’ driven by Mauss and Durkheim. 5 At that time, Halbwachs had already started his work on memory, which, as we know, is for him a privileged object of investigation, and his main contribution to the sociology
The Two Hidden Categories of ‘La doctrine d'Émile Durkheim’
Le programme de sociologie de la connaissance d'Halbwachs
mémoire à la « théorie de l'intelligence et des catégories » impulsée par Mauss et Durkheim 6 . À cette époque, Halbwachs a déjà depuis un moment commencé à travailler sur la mémoire qui, comme on sait, est pour lui un objet d'investigation privilégié, et
A Critique of Rawls
Susan Stedman Jones
Durkheim's account of the categories is re-examined, in a critique of the fundamentally mistaken and philosophically uninformed interpretation put forward in Rawls's Epistemology and Practice (2004). This converts Durkheim into a pragmatist, even a behaviourist, more or less reducing conscience to an epiphenomenon of sounds, movements, and socially generated raw emotions. She bypasses the key role of representations and symbols, while her emphasis on collective 'forces' ignores Durkheim's concern with power as puissance and with the creativity of an effervescent fusion of energies. Thus action is central to his account of the categories, but not in the terms offered by Rawls. For action involves the full range of the functions of conscience. And these come into play through the power of representations and symbols, as an integral part of a whole creative fusion of energies and consciences in the 'dynamogenics' of collective action.
Affirmative action and trajectories of the indigenous
Bengt G. Karlsson
In this article I examine the ways in which the term “indigenous peoples“ is reworked in a specific South Asian context. I focus on the new, hybrid category of “indigenous tribe“ in the Indian state of Meghalaya. I argue that we can think of the indigenous tribe category as a strategic conflation of two different regimes of rights or political assertions. The first relates to the existing nation-state framework for affirmative action as expressed in the Scheduled Tribe (ST) status, while the second relates to the emerging global framework for asserting the rights of indigenous peoples. While the benefits of asserting the status of indigenous tribes is obvious, for example, preventing other, nonindigenous tribes from owning land in the state, the long-term gains seems more doubtful. Both affirmative action programs and indigenous peoples frameworks are motivated by a moral imperative to redress historical injustices and contemporary social inequalities. To evoke them for other ends might eventually backfire. The larger point I seek to make, however, is that political categories tend to take on a life of their own, escaping their intended purposes and hence applied by people in novel and surprising ways.
Durkheim and Mauss's Intervention into the History of Philosophy
Erhard Schüttpelz and Martin Zillinger
Between 1900 and 1912, Durkheim, Mauss and other contributors of the L’Année Sociologique developed the most ambitious philosophical project of modern anthropology: a comparative and worldwide social history of philosophical categories. This article briefly summarises three phases of the ‘Category Project’ and gives a preliminary characterisation of its Hegelian ambitions. Further, it points out the common denominator in the diverse success stories of the Category Project, namely the reference to the human body as the site of collective consciousness. In a second step, the article traces the intricate genesis and after-life of the most important category of bodily efficacy and epistemological insight provided by Durkheim and Mauss: the elaboration of ‘effervescence’ and its manifestation of ‘totality’.
Creating a New Disease Grouping
entity is controversial or socially stigmatized that awareness is directed toward the classificatory systems at work ( 1999: 12 ). What is revealed is how categories are historically situated artifacts with membership to certain groupings that do not only
If social units are to be classified it must be by reference to some distinctive characteristic or characteristics that they share. Administrative classifications are usually based on the characteristics identified in the everyday language that reflects practical knowledge. Classifications that will assist the growth of social scientific knowledge have to be based on the identification of theoretically relevant characteristics. Classification precedes the naming of categories. Experimental research into the relative strength of civic and ethnic preferences could uncover the variables that underlie popular notions of nation, race and ethnic group.
Adeel Hamza and John Gannon
sociological approach. Three of his works have become especially prominent in this context – his essay on the gift (1925a, tr. 1954), his lectures on bodily techniques (1935, tr. 1973) and his paper on the person as a category of the human mind (1938, tr. 1979
The Rhetoric of Dutch Immigrant Integration Policy in 2011
Dana Rem and Des Gasper
, concepts, categories, and other aspects of rhetoric, we explore this key document. “Rhetoric” refers here to the practices of attempted persuasion of a public, in particular “the practice of civic communication” ( Kock and Villadsen 2017: 572–573 ), and to
War Veterans and the Construction of Citizenship Categories
Nikkie Wiegink, Ralph Sprenkels, and Birgitte Refslund Sørensen
War veterans oft en constitute a specific category of citizens as they inspire and bring forward particular claims on recognition and resources of the state. The authors featured in this special section each explore processes of the construction of categories of war veterans in different contemporary contexts. Drawing on ethnographic data, the contributions explore the interactions between (those identified) as war veterans and the state, and the processes concerned with granting value to participation in war. This involves (the denial of) rights and privileges as well as a process of identity construction. Th e construction of war veterans as a specific kind of citizens is a political phenomenon, subject to negotiation and contestation, involving both the external categorizations of war veterans as well as the self-making and identity politics from former fighters “from below.”