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Redefining Censorship

Lessons Learned from Teaching The Merchant of Venice in Israel

Esther B. Schupak

Because of its potential for fostering antisemitic stereotypes, The Merchant of Venice has a history of being subject to censorship in secondary schools in the United States since the 1930s. 1 However, censorship is no longer fashionable. It is

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Censorship as Freedom of Expression

The Tailor and Ansty Revisited

Maryann Gialanella Valiulis

Censorship laws were introduced in the Irish Free State in 1928 and sparked immediate controversy among intellectuals, the media, and the political classes. The issue of censorship became the center of a conversation about Irish national identity. It was, in part, an assertion of independence and a conscious rejection of colonialism, an attempt to decide what stories would be told about them, what image they would portray to the world. In 1942, one text in particular sparked a renewal of the censorship controversy: Eric Cross's book, The Tailor and Ansty, which was banned because it was a realistic portrayal of Irish peasant life that was unacceptable to post-colonial Ireland, and because the author, an English folklorist, was perceived to be trying to undermine post-colonial attempts to establish a modern identity for Ireland. Thus, the application of censorship laws in Ireland can be seen as a move to free Irish self-identity from the negative portrayals of the Irish so prevalent in the colonial period.

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Satirical Panels against Censorship

A Battle That Raged during the Spanish Transition

Gerardo Vilches

In mid-1970s Spain, many new satirical magazines featured a strong political stance opposing Francisco Franco’s regime and in favour of democracy. Magazines with a significant amount of comics-based content constituted a space for political and social critics, as humour allowed them to go further than other media. However, legal authorities tried to censor and punish them. This article analyses the relationship between the Spanish satirical press and censorship and focuses on the difficulties their publishers and authors encountered in expressing their criticism of the country’s social changes. Various cartoonists have been interviewed, and archival research carried out. In-depth analysis of the magazines’ contents is used to gain an overview of a political and social period in recent Spanish history, in which the satirical press uniquely tackled several issues.

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John Ireland

Sartre's conflicted relationship with his theatrical audience is explained by showing how Sartre's initial theatrical venture, Bariona, created in a POW camp in December 1940, sparked an idealized conception of the audience. The particular context in which the play was produced brought its performers and audience together into an almost mystical fusion. But these virtues, derived from pre-textual “oral“ culture, lost much of their luster with Sartre's second play, The Flies. Like its predecessor, The Flies used myth to counter German censorship, but in occupied Paris in front of a much more heterogeneous audience. The resulting comparative failure complicated Sartre's relationship to the mass audiences he sought in the post-war years. Theater audiences became emblematic of a wider public Sartre never fully trusted to accept or understand his ideas. Furthermore, Sartre's decision to stage almost all his plays between 1946 and 1959 at the “bourgeois“ Théâtre Antoine only made him even more mistrustful of audiences he often found himself writing “against.“

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The Guilty Brelfie

Censored Breastfeeding Selfies Reclaim Public Space

Mari E. Ramler

Breastfeeding mothers and their babies are simultaneously in the public sphere and hidden from public view. Although social media has the potential to normalize attitudes toward breastfeeding by increasing visibility, Facebook and Instagram maintain an unpredictable censorship policy toward “brelfies”—female breast selfies—which has undermined progress. Combining Iris Marion Young’s “undecidability” of the breasted experience with Brett Lunceford’s rhetoric of nakedness, this article investigates what breastfeeding mothers communicate online via digital images when they expose their breasts. By deconstructing controversial case studies, this article concludes that brelfies have increased breastfeeding’s accessibility and acceptability in the material world.

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Franz A. Birgel

Characterized by Siegfried Kracauer as "the first and last German film that overtly expressed a Communist viewpoint," Kuhle Wampe (1932) is also noteworthy for being the only film on which Bertolt Brecht collaborated from beginning to end, as well as for its controversial censorship in the tumultuous political context of the late Weimar Republic. When set against the background of the 1920 Motion Picture Law and the censorship of two other high-profile films—Sergei Eisenstein's Battleship Potemkin and Lewis Milestone's All Quiet on the Western Front—the political history of Kuhle Wampe highlights the indecisiveness, fragility, and fears of the German Left as the Nazis prepared to take power.

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Mixed Message Media

Girls’ Voices and Civic Engagement in Student Journalism

Piotr S. Bobkowski and Genelle I. Belmas

teachers prefer student media to highlight only the positives about their schools thus serving as the schools’ public relations mouthpiece ( Thomas 1995 ). Our survey shows that by choosing censorship, school officials miss valuable opportunities to help

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Wenn eine Band lange Zeit lebt

Puhdys, Politics, and Popularity

John Littlejohn

feeling the sting of censorship and also expert in the use of those references. “Wenn ein Mensch lebt” proves itself to be exemplary of the early work of the Puhdys. Its text provides layered references to multiple texts and themes disfavored by the

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Dissenting Voices?

Controlling Children’s Comics under Franco

Rhiannon McGlade

lack of an articulated procedure in the day-to-day application of censorship, which naturally created discrepancies. 14 Moreover, many of those charged with overseeing the process during the Franco period were under immense pressure themselves. With no

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Girl, Interrupted and Continued

Rethinking the Influence of Elena Fortún’s Celia

Ana Puchau de Lecea

context of the role of women and girls in society in the 1920s. The second section turns to the reaction of Franco’s censorship corps to these books and their underlying ideology and considers the reception among members of the next generation of writers