Revealing paradoxes abounded in early Third Republic French representations of the marmiton, or culinary apprentice. Investigative reportage and reformist discourse exposed apprentices’ miserable existence while still depicting these young fellows as playful and carefree. Conversely, popular marmiton mythology, particularly in children’s literature, idealized culinary apprenticeship, amid glimpses of harsh living and working conditions, while also highlighting admittedly rare opportunities for ambitious apprentices to achieve substantial public success. Max Jacob’s children’s book Histoire du Roi Kaboul Ier et du Marmiton Gauwain provides an emblematic example with its parodic fairy-tale rendering of celebrity chef Auguste Escoffier’s extraordinary triumphs. Ultimately, while enchanting, the rosy popular vision of the magical marmiton obfuscated exploitative child labor practices underpinning the whole culinary enterprise in this supposed golden age of French gastronomy.
Representing Culinary Apprenticeship in Early Third Republic France
Michael D. Garval
The 1961 Withdrawal from the Ontario Hockey Association by the St. Michael’s Majors
This article examines the 1961 withdrawal by St. Michael’s College School’s hockey team from the semi-professional Canadian junior hockey league, the Ontario Hockey Association. The long-playing schedule, the heavy burden of the physical labor, and the emphasis on athletics over academics were all factors that led to the high school’s withdrawing of its team. St. Michael’s College’s experience was an early expression of concern about the exploitation of young athletes, concern that has now become increasingly shared publicly around the globe. The limited success of St. Michael’s College’s campaign for change lay in the difficulty of convincing society of this exploitation. The school’s withdrawal highlights the entrenched problem of institutions treating young male athletes as commodities.
Working-Class Boyhood and the Policing of Play in Belle Époque Paris
By the end of the nineteenth century, working-class children increasingly fell under adult supervision. Working-class boys, however, retained much autonomy over their leisure time. By examining memoirs and police archives, this article shows that boys’ play often flirted with the criminal or the dangerous. When boys entered the workplace, this reputation for lawless play followed them. Drawing on accident reports, this article demonstrates that employers and republican labor inspectors blamed boys for dangerous workplace accidents by highlighting boys’ playful nature. The article concludes by showing how reformers constructed spaces for boys’ leisure in an attempt to tame and direct their play. I argue that this reckless play became one of the defining characteristics of working-class boyhood both within peer society and to external observers. Regulating boys’ play thus became a way to ensure that they matured seamlessly into worker-citizens.
Comment on Newberry and Rosen
for research being geared toward addressing newly formulated policy issues such as street children, child labor, and children's rights, the link with the wider political economy became even more difficult to make—so much so that the new policy agenda
Formative Experiences and Identity in Peasant Childhood
’s work allow me to analyze how girls’ participation in rural tasks should not be defined negatively as child labor, nor romantized as part of an idyllic parenting process. It should, instead, be conceptualized as an educational process, a formative
The Art and Child Artists of the Carrolup Native School and Settlement, Western Australia
Ellen Percy Kraly and Ezzard Flowers
capacity to read the landscape in spatial and temporal detail. The education of the children, however, clashed with the institutional control over the children’s mobilities and the need for child labor to (re)produce the settlement. While some of the boys
The Effects of COVID-19 on Girls
what other choice does she have? Figure 4: Child Labor: Another Solution to Poverty Artist: Monon Mahfuz Safina, at nine years of age, was a brilliant student in grade three. She was awarded an extra scholarship along with free tuition in
Informalization and differential subsumption in Thailand’s garment sector
direct managerial oversight; in a network of decentralized production; using a simple, unmechanized labor process; with unwaged child labor widely incorporated. As a consequence of its (unmechanized, not directly managed) labor process—subsumed “merely
as a type of emotional child labor, where the children are encouraged to perform certain emotions connected to vulnerability, which volunteers and visitors can then alleviate with physical affection. The dynamics between visitors and guides resemble
Race, Gender, and Embodied Aquatic Histories
the early part of the twentieth century, the rise of compulsory education, growing restrictions on child labor, an increase in enrollment in higher education, and a wider availability of community organizations provided more opportunities for American