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Development and Migration--Migration and Development

What Comes First? Global Perspective and African Experiences

Stephen Castles

Socio-economic change and human mobility are constantly interactive processes, so to ask whether migration or development comes first is nonsensical. Yet in both popular and political discourse it has become the conventional wisdom to argue that promoting economic development in the Global South has the potential to reduce migration to the North. This carries the clear implication that such migration is a bad thing, and poor people should stay put. This 'sedentary bias' is a continuation of colonial policies designed to mobilise labour for mines and plantations, while preventing permanent settlement in the cities. European policy-makers and academics are particularly concerned with flows from Africa, and measures taken by the European Union and its member states are often designed to reduce these - often in the guise of well-meaning development policies. By contrast, many migration scholars regard human mobility as a normal part of social transformation processes, and a way in which people can exercise agency to improve their livelihoods. This article examines these problems, first by providing a brief history of academic debates on international migration and development. It goes on to look at the politics of migration and development, using both EU policy and African approaches as examples. An alternative approach to migration and development is presented, based on a conceptual framework derived from the analysis of social transformation processes.

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Between Labor Migration and Forced Displacement

Wartime Mobilities in the Burkina Faso–Côte d’Ivoire Transnational Space

Jesper Bjarnesen

crisis. Their subjective experiences of displacement, therefore, differed considerably from those of their parents, who were able to draw on idioms of circular migration, as well as their familiarity with Burkinabe standards of social interaction. The

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Migration, residential investment, and the experience of “transition”

Tracing transnational practices of Albanian migrants in Athens

Gerda Dalipaj

. Geographical proximity and immigrant labour in agriculture: Albanian immigrants in the Greek countryside . Sociologia Ruralis 49 ( 4 ): 394 – 414 . 10.1111/j.1467-9523.2009.00494.x Maroukis , Thanos , and Eda Gemi . 2013 . Albanian circular migration

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Assisted “voluntary” return of women to Kosovo

Rhetoric and reality within the framework of development

Sandra Sacchetti

, which is a fusion of the original self with the identity acquired in the host country. In migration policy, this theory has been borne out in circular migration programs, such as the EU’s blue card, through the creation of migration information centers

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Managing a Multiplicity of Interests

The Case of Irregular Migration from Libya

Melissa Phillips

, including circular migration, labor migration, and irregular migration. Libya's migration system comprises governmental authorities and a wide range of other interests, including nonstate actors, tribal groups, militias, and, to a certain extent, the local

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Regional integration from “below” in West Africa

A study of transboundary town-twinning of Idiroko (Nigeria) and Igolo (Benin)

Olukayode A. Faleye

already urbanized areas characterized by circular migration from rural exodus to urban exodus gained momentum since 1980 due to the onset of economic crisis in the region ( Potts, 2012 ). This trend of urbanization has undermined the colonially determined

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Owen White and Elizabeth Heath

, 2011). 42 François Manchuelle, Willing Migrants: Soninke Labor Diasporas, 1848–1960 (Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1997). See also Dennis D. Cordell, Joel W. Gregory, and Victor Piché, Hoe and Wage: A Social History of a Circular Migration

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Borders and Interruptions

Museums in the Age of Global Mobility, Mexico City, 7–9 June 2017

Gwyneira Isaac, Diana E. Marsh, Laura Osorio Sunnucks, and Anthony Shelton

, Tsuda looked at how museums are not examining the circular migration pattern that takes place between Japan and Brazil as seen via what he calls the “diasporic return” of Japanese who migrate to Brazil and then return to Japan during subsequent shifts

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Alessandro Jedlowski

within Africa. See, for instance, Dennis D. Cordell, Joel W. Gregory, and Victor Pich, Hoe and Wage: A Social History of a Circular Migration System in West Africa (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996); and Dunbar T. Moodie, Going for Gold: Men, Mines

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The Meanings of the Move?

From “Predicaments of Mobility” to “Potentialities in Displacement”

Stephen C. Lubkemann

migration—a form of “immobilization” that disrupted established circular migration strategies on the “back end” (i.e., preventing a return home)—and not from their initial act of outmigration per se. Second, while the prolongation of the war generated