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“Eyes Shut, Muted Voices”

Narrating and Temporalizing the Post–Civil War Era through a Monument

Dimitra Gefou-Madianou

second critical event, enfolded in the first one: the torching of the village by the Nazis and the ensuing civil war. My interest in this issue was triggered by the raising of a monument in memory of the ‘holocaust’ or ‘tragedy of 1944’, referred to by

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Jesús Tronch

The Spanish Civil War broke out on 18 July 1936, when reactionary factions of the army rebelled against the young progressive Second Republic, then governed by a broad left-wing coalition. 1 Spain and the Spaniards were split between those loyal to

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War and Memory

The Israeli Communist Commemoration of the Spanish Civil War, 1936–1986

Amir Locker-Biletzki

The Spanish Civil War, which began on 19 July 1936, quickly became the rallying point for leftists around the globe, who flocked to defend the Spanish Republic. During those same years, the rise of extreme right-wing ideologies in Central and

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Maureen Mulligan

The aim of this article is to consider the degree of responsibility involved in the travels and writing of two women who wrote about Spain during the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939). This complex and devastating event broke out when the Nationalist

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Bringing Lebanon’s Civil War Home to Anglophone Literature

Alameddine’s Appropriation of Shakespeare’s Tragedies

Yousef Awad

Introduction Ripped apart by civil war and continual political and military interventions by regional and international powers, Lebanon is an ‘unstated state [… that] has no strength and no authority’, as literary scholar Salah D. Hassan laments

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Noble Ghosts, Empty Graves, and Suppressed Traumas

The Heroic Tale of “Taiyuan's Five Hundred Martyrs” in the Chinese Civil War

Dominic Meng-Hsuan Yang

On 19 February 1951, a state-sponsored funeral took place in north Taipei in which a splendid cenotaph to commemorate the “five hundred martyrs of Taiyuan”— heroic individuals who died defending a distant city in northern China against the Chinese Communist encirclement—was revealed. In the four decades that followed, the Nationalist government on Taiwan built a commemorative cult and a pedagogic enterprise centering on these figures. Yet, the martyrs' epic was a complete fiction, one used by Chiang Kai-shek's regime to erase the history of atrocities and mass displacement in the Chinese civil war. Following Taiwan's democratization in the 1990s, the repressed traumas returned in popular narratives; this recovery tore the hidden wounds wide open. By examining the tale of the five hundred martyrs as both history and metaphor, this article illustrates the importance of political forces in both suppressing and shaping traumatic memories in Taiwan.

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The Representation of Traumatic Memory in Spanish Comics

Remembering the Civil War and Francoism in Panels

Juan Carlos Pérez García

The graphic representation of traumatic memory of war disasters constitutes a broad tradition that can be traced back to Francisco Goya. Comics, with the resources provided by their textual-visual narrative, have been part of that tradition especially since the 1950s. However, representing traumatic memory of war disasters is troublesome, in regard to the artists’ strategies and public reception – as shown by the conflicts between memory, history and myth posed in these works. This article develops a comparative study of traumatic memories in Spanish comics and presents an analysis of the modes of representation in works such as Carlos Giménez’s Paracuellos, Francisco Gallardo Sarmiento and Miguel Gallardo’s Un largo silencio, Antonio Altarriba and Kim’s El arte de volar and Paco Roca’s Los surcos del azar.

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Death of a Statesman – Birth of a Martyr

Martyrdom and Memorials in Post–Civil War Lebanon

Are John Knudsen

-Amin mosque he endowed. The magnitude of Hariri’s posthumous commemoration makes it important to examine both its foundations and the implications for the understanding of martyrdom in post–civil war Lebanon. There is no tradition for prosecuting and

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History Teaching and Cultural Hegemony

Representations of the Spanish Civil War in Francoist History Textbooks of the 1960s

Johanna Fricke

“The Supreme Court Stops Franco's Exhumation” El País , 5 June 2019 Even though 1 April 2019 marked the eightieth anniversary of the end of the Spanish Civil War, the conflict remains a divisive issue in Spanish society today.1 As the above

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Laurie Kain Hart

zone, I discovered, was the epicenter of the final phases of the Greek Civil War (1946–1949), and it testified physically to the disaster. I passed through two police checkpoints as I neared the lakes, where the international borders of Albania, Greece