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Collective Singulars

A Reinterpretation

Nikolay Koposov

The article proposes a semantic theory of collective singulars, or singular collective names, designating basic historical concepts, which came into being in the period of the Enlightenment. Their logical structure seems to be internally contradictory, for they refer at the same time to universal values and ideas and to concrete historical occurrences. They also entail two different principles of category-formation—the logic of general names and that of proper names. The two logics are equally rooted in our cognitive makeup; however, different cultures favor either one or the other. The article examines the transformation of the balance of the two logics in European thought from the Middle Ages to the present. The formation of the idea of universal history has brought about an equilibrium of the two logics, while the contemporary "crisis of the future" is accompanied by the rise of the logic of proper names.

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Democracy in the Plural?

The Concepts of Democracy in Swedish Parliamentary Debates during the Interwar Years

Anna Friberg

The article explores some of the composite concepts of democracy that were used in Sweden, primarily by the Social Democrats during the interwar years. Should these be seen as pluralizations of the collective singular democracy or as something qualitatively new? By showing how these concepts relate to each other and to democracy as a whole, the article argues that they should be considered statements about democracy as one entity, that democracy did not only concern the political sphere, but was generally important throughout the whole of society. The article also examines the Swedish parliamentarians' attitudes toward democracy after the realization of universal suffrage, and argues that democracy was eventually perceived as such a positive concept that opponents of what was labeled democratic reforms had to reformulate the political issues into different words in order to avoid coming across as undemocratic.

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Boris Maslov

historians of political ideas assume a positive answer, Koselleck makes a case that modern “collective singulars” such as history , liberty , or socialism , which emerged in the century around the French Revolution, have a distinctive structure: they apply

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The Environment as an Umbrella Concept; From Word to Historical Concept

Risto-Matti Matero and Juan Alejandro Pautasso

past, present, and future times, setting itself up as a collective singular. The changes that revolution underwent were simultaneous to the construction of a new temporality where the space of experience and the horizon of expectation grew apart, thus

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On Counterrevolution

Semantic Investigations of a Counterconcept during the French Revolution

Friedemann Pestel

historiographical current that tends to see counterrevolution as a political ideology or counterrevolutionaries as a distinct group of political actors. Third, Montlosier used a counterrevolution not as a collective singular but rather as a more independent

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A World in the Making

Discovering the Future in the Hispanic World

Javier Fernández-Sebastián

Translator : Mark Hounsell

, industry, the monarchy, or any other collective, political movement, economic sector, or institution would be the subject of growing interest in books and tracts. Under the umbrella of that collective singular known generically as “the future” there was