This essay in comparative history considers how governing elites and rural publics have interpreted rules of law and criminal behavior in times of radical tenure transformation. During the twentieth century, Russians experienced three state-sponsored attempts at property rights revolution: firstly, the pre-1917 Stolypin Reforms to privatize the ubiquitous peasant communes, secondly, Stalin’s 1930s campaign to forcibly collectivized peasant communes, and thirdly, the 1990s ‘shock therapy’ reforms to replace Soviet collectivism with wholesale privatization. In each case, adherents of the pre-existing property systems were excluded from the decision-making process that established the new one. Russia’s historical experience is viewed in light of the contested emergence of private property regimes during England’s enclosure movement, and during the nineteenth-century Euro- pean settler appropriation of American Indian land as private property—with African-born plantation workers also later claimed as private property. In some cases, resistance was viewed as criminal; in others, it was punishable as treason.
Property rights, crime, and the rules of law
This article questions the conceptualization of the 1930s Soviet rural mass collectivization as an opposition of 'private versus collective'. Instead a 'private-in-the-collective' (sovkhoist) approach is suggested, stemming from the essentially compromised nature of mass collectivization and offering a better key for understanding of current post-Soviet processes. Archival evidence is used to demonstrate how altruistic versus acquisitive polarities formed a major ideological debate in the 1920s and were gradually resolved as a 'private-in-the-collective' compromise in the collectivization decade. It is suggested that northern reindeer husbandry in the Russian Subarctic presents the private-in-the-collective compromise through the long-standing practice of grazing personal (private) deer mixed with the public herd. The empirical data presented in this article has been collected during fieldwork with reindeer-herding teams in the Kola Peninsula, Northwest Russia since 1995.
Tundra Nenets' Reminiscences of the 1943 Mandalada Rebellions
Each political change in the former USSR and Russian Federation has had different influences on the lives of local populations in different areas. Nenets, like many other indigenous people of the Russian North, were not tied to any political situation. The perception was that they always lived independently in the tundra using their traditional and historical knowledge. In reality, when comparing even the most recent past of the Nenets to the present, many differences and contradictions become apparent in the lives of these northern people. This article discusses the role of censorship in the transformation and performance of historical narratives concerning the development of the relationship between the state and the indigenous tundra people, here Nenets. By distorting historical facts, through exaggeration and mythologizing real-life events, people tried to shield themselves against negative emotions and memories of the past.
Reinhart Koselleck's Lava Memories and Conceptual History
Margrit Pernau and Sébastien Tremblay
cannot translate the immediacy of the experience, and the primordial evidence for individual: lava resists communication and collectivization. Unlike Maurice Halbwachs, Koselleck can very well conceive of memory without words and imagination. 17 If this
From the Family to the Groupe Professionnel
One of Durkheim's great 'unwritten books' was on the family. And one of the consequences has been insufficient attention to the issue's centrality in his work, and to the radical implications in the case of modern society. This essay is based on his lectures and articles on the family, but together with his many reviews on the subject in the Année sociologique. Given his evolutionary approach, a start is made with his interest in the origins and development of the family. But this helps to underline the far-reaching implications of his view that the modern family has narrowed down to the conjugal family. In a way the individual is emancipated from the bonds of kinship. But it is in a transformation of inheritance into an essentially private affair. Solidarity requires a rebuilding of links across the generations, while justice require a re-collectivization of inherited wealth, through new occupational groups.
Cattle Economy and Environmental Perception of Sedentary Sakhas in Central Yakuti
Thermokarst depressions in the permafrost environment of Yakutia (northeastern Siberia) provide fertile hayfields for Sakha cattle economy. These areas of open land in the boreal forest are called alaas in Sakha language. At this northern latitude cattle breeding is particularly in demand of nutritious fodder, because cows spend nine months on average in winter stables. Therefore alaases are the focus of Sakha environmental perception. Sakhas not only dwell in alaases, but through their economic activities, they modify and maintain them. This process is based on control and domination rather than on procurement of food by a “giving“ environment. Villagers in Tobuluk (central Yakutia) consider the areas surrounding their village as controlled islands of alaases (hayfields) in a sea of uncontrolled forest. This article examines Sakha environmental perception in which landscapes and cardinal directions evoke and define each other, and characterize those who reside there. Due to the subsequent transformations of Sakha economy and lifestyle by the Soviet and Russian state administration in the last 100 years (collectivization, centralization, and decollectivization) the way that Sakhas interact with their surroundings has transformed radically within the four generations causing profound differences in the way generations relate to, interact with, and understand alaases.
Anna Bara and Erika Monahan
country was changed completely. Over the years of collectivization and the famine, about 90 percent of the country's livestock was eradicated; not until the 1950s did livestock numbers return to their prefamine levels, but the economy had been
Anna Bara, Tero Mustonen, and Oxana Zemtsova
decisions was removed from the herders, and production nomadism prevailed. Collectivization was a direct attack on the successful herder and his mind. On page 50, the authors interview a person who clarifies the situation and reasons for the all
Populist and Peasant Conceptions of Entitlement in Rural Nicaragua
everyday conversation. Gualiqueme was created as a fully collectivized cooperative, part of the major agrarian reform implemented under the revolutionary Sandinista government in the 1980s, and its residents remain firm supporters of the FSLN. In the years
commenced a campaign of collectivization on the Evenki economy, with the goal of turning these nomadic people into sedentary, “civilized” Soviet citizens. Collectivization thus proceeded with the settlement and relocation of many Evenkis as well as the mass