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Beyond Metaphor

Corporeal Sociability and the Language of Commerce in Eighteenth-Century Britain and France

Joseph D. Bryan

social ranks, depopulate the countryside, and spread dissolute moeurs . Yet, eighteenth-century French and British writers addressed the social ramifications of luxury and commerce through the physical body. In his first two “Discourses,” Jean

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Political Realism, Commerce and Moral Psychology

Ze'ev Emmerich

What marks the difference between modern and non-modern political philosophy? Such a question could be understood in two ways. On the one hand, it could be understood as a question concerning formal differences between modern and pre/non-modern modes of philosophising. On the other hand, it could be understood as a question about the changing nature of the object of the philosophical enterprise, namely a question concerning the historical differences between modern and pre-modern (domestic as well as international) politics. Contemporary political philosophy has focused primarily on meeting the first, formal, challenge. By failing to take proper account of the effects that major historical developments—especially the rise of commercial society and global market economy—have had on the character of political life, much of contemporary political theory tend to view its enterprise as essentially an extension to or an application of ethics. What is needed instead is a 'political economy'. Political philosophy must rise to this challenge if it wishes to help us contend with our present predicament. The final part of the article outlines a realist, non-moralistic, political philosophy which takes account of the interplay between human 'sentiments' and 'reason' in a commercial world order.

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Personal Identity and Tory Commercialism in John Campbell’s The Travels and Adventures of Edward Brown (1739)

Matthew Binney

character with its circumstances. Circumstances, Consciousness, Observation, and Commerce Brown’s independent and shifting authorial consciousness is defined by his experiences, which then permit him to describe the diverse circumstances of various

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Rebuilding, Remembrance, and Commerce

Perspectives on the Economic Revitalization of Lower Manhattan

Kate DeConinck

, my analysis calls attention to the particular words and language that individuals use to express their views about this rapid economic development. As my interviews reveal, persons who stand opposed to the growth of commerce around the World Trade

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Enterprising Émigrés of the Channel Islands

French Economic Migration under “Refugeedom” during the French Revolution

Sydney Watts

Revolution. Jersey and its sister island, Guernsey, served as sites of Anglo-French coexistence. These borderlands were defined by their cultural admixture and transnationalism, as much as their illicit commerce and trade. This article situates one of the

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Sturdy Beggars and Political Crisis in 1730s England

Farid Azfar

This essay offers a close reading of a highly influential ballad, one that played a significant role in the excise crisis of 1733 when it helped turn public sentiment against Robert Walpole's government. The ballad, which plays upon Walpole's use of the term "sturdy beggars" to insult a group of petitioning merchants, manipulates both positive and negative visions of beggary. At the same time, the ballad aligns the merchants who opposed the excise bill with several cultural iterations of the strong and suffering type, including social bandits and martyred heroes. In the decades that followed, the sturdy beggars affair came to represent the extreme malleability of political rhetoric. It explains the emergence in the 1730s of a powerful strain of postpolitical exhaustion with demotic culture.

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Werkbundpolitik and Weltpolitik: The German State's Interest in Global Commerce and "Good Design," 1912-1914"

John V. Maciuika

Although the conflict between Muthesius and van de Velde has been well documented in the annals of modern architectural and design history, far less understood is the extent to which domestic political crises and new policy departures in Berlin served as preconditions for the Werkbund conflict in the first place. Prominent Werkbund members—men such as Werkbund Managing Director Ernst Jäckh and Werkbund Vice President Hermann Muthesius, but also including such national political figures and Werkbund members as Friedrich Naumann of Württemberg and Gustav Stresemann of Saxony—used institutional affiliations and their multiple professional identities to forge unprecedented linkages between the Werkbund leadership, industrial interest groups, and powerful German state interests. Specifically, and at the national level, new policies articulated by German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg and key German ministries in Berlin, strident national interest group politics, and an evolving state outlook toward Weltpolitik (geopolitical strategy) combined to reshape Werkbund policy in fundamental ways between 1912 and 1914. Without these forces, and without developments that followed the lopsided and highly contentious Reichstag elections of January 1912, the Werkbund likely never would have risen to the prominent position it came to occupy with state authorities by July 1914.

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“Make a Living by Doing Good”

The Moral Economy of Infant Formulas among Chinese Migrant Women in France

Yong Li

the People's Republic of China (e.g., students, marriage migrants, wage workers), especially women, are massively invested in the daigou of milk powder. 5 This article focuses on the e-commerce of infant formulas by Chinese migrant women in France

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Les mules, boucs émissaires du conflit Kurde

Gülcan Kolay

’armée turque tue-t-elle les mules? Dans cet article nous montrerons qu’abattre les mules qui jouent un rôle important dans le commerce transfrontalier est une politique punitive pratiquée par les forces de l’ordre, qui peut également être lue comme un mode de

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Questioning Masculinity and the Gender Binary in Fashion

The Case of Glenn Martens at Y/Project

Nicola Brajato

visual presentations and e-commerce management. More specifically, the analysis seeks to ascertain how Glenn Martens's creative approach responds to the idea of masculinity and figures the male dressed body, moving them both toward a more blurred reality