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Matthew Binney

prosperous writing career by innovating the travel genre: he utilizes Locke’s personal identity to promote his Tory commercialism through the narrator of his popular, fictionalized travel account, The Travels and Adventures of Edward Brown (1739). 1 By

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Miniature Bride or Little Girl Religious

First Communion Clothing in Post-war Spanish Culture and Society

Jessamy Harvey

The tradition of religious clothing for children is relatively unexplored: this article develops the premise that debates about the links between the sacred and the market go deeper than concern about consumption, and bring to the surface issues of identity. Through exploring the historical development of the First Communion, not as religious ritual but as Catholic consumer culture, the article turns to analyse girls' communicant dress in Spain between the 1940s and 1960s which were the early decades of a dictatorial Regime (1939 to 1975) marked by an ideology of National-Catholicism. General Francisco Franco y Bahamonde, leader of the military rebellion against the elected government in 1936, ruled Spain until his death. One of my aims is to correct a tendency to make the little girl dressed in bridal wear the most visible sign because to do so disregards the cultural practice of wearing clothing to perform piety, signal a vocation or express gratitude for religious intercession.

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The Origins of the Girl Hero

Shirley Temple, Child Star and Commodity

Rebecca C. Hains

Since the late 1990s, "girl power" programs featuring girl heroes have emerged as an important new trend in children's television. However, girl heroes are not as new as they seem. Producers of mass media texts created many girl heroes in the 1930s, before the adoption of television as a mainstream medium, but the scholarly literature on today's girl heroes rarely acknowledges these pre-television predecessors. To address this gap, this paper presents research on the depictions of the strong orphan girls portrayed by Shirley Temple, positioned as cultural girl heroes in the 1930s. It explores the commercial contexts in which films starring Shirley Temple were produced and offers an analytical discussion of the positive and problematic features of these stories and the product lines associated with them. By understanding the themes, commercial contexts, and controversial aspects of Shirley Temple's on-screen stories as marketplace commodities, scholars can better study the relevance and importance of the girl heroes who are so popular in today's marketplace.

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The Puzzle of The University on Air

A Story of Media and Academia in Israel, 1977–2013

Hagai Boas and Ayelet Baram-Tsabari

countries ( Mazzonetto et al. 2005 ). The processes of commercialism have swept away all the ‘old-fashioned’ styles of broadcasting. The Israeli Broadcast Authority (IBA), for instance, has been continuously changing its programming for both its television

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Sex, Sleaze, Slaughter, and Salvation

Phoren Tourists and Slum Tours in Calcutta (India)

Atreyee Sen

This article explores the violence and voyeurism in viewing poverty in urban slums. By uncovering the social, economic, gendered, and racialized politics within a small-scale travel industry, I show how the latter cater to certain personal, sexual, and religious curiosities among a breed of travelers visiting developing countries. I did my ethnography in the slums of Calcutta, where travel entrepreneurs organized a range of discreet tours of ghettoes for white foreigners (primarily from Australia or the United States). These popular expeditions offered “sightings,” such as half-naked women bathing at water tanks, ritualistic animal sacrifice, and neighborhoods for prostitutes. While reinforcing stereotypes of the primitive other (as opposed to the exotic other), these secret tours allowed travelers to indulge in a range of emotions, from real life voyeurism to “showing gratitude to God for being civilized.” By emphasizing the ambivalences and contradictions in viewing and representing the other, this article argues further that the immoral and critical gaze of a small group of foreign tourists can affect the nature of morality and commercialism among large sections of the urban poor in India.

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Yuval Gozansky

), TCC presented itself distinctively as Israeli television for children and teens, articulating the Zionist worldview and hegemonic agenda, and at the same time offering attractive, up-to-date television products, hence combining commercialism and

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Amy Cox Hall, Sergio González Varela, Jessica S.R. Robinson, Peter Weisensel, and David Wills

unimpressed by the events surrounding the funeral of Lord Wellington (“the English Agamemnon”)—far too much spectacle. The bustle and prosperity visible on the streets impresses Goncharov, but the commercialism is excessive and everywhere the people are the

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Are “the Natives” Educable?

Dutch Schoolchildren Learn Ethical Colonial Policy (1890–1910)

Elisabeth Wesseling and Jacques Dane

-called Ethical Policy ( ethische politiek ) for the Dutch East Indies, whereby ruthless commercialism gave way to a complex affective and moral involvement with this much-prized colony. 3 The Ethical Policy was the last stage in the Netherlands’ centuries

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The Ill-Equipped Modernist

Historicizing Édouard Dujardin’s Les Lauriers Sont Coupés

Kelly J. Maynard

traverses was one of the areas first altered by Haussmann and Napoleon III precisely to facilitate the traffic circulation observed here. Similarly, the explosion of commercialism that Haussmannization encouraged and reflected has long been a trope in

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Pivots and Levers

Political Rhetoric around Capitalism in Britain from the 1970s to the Present

Neil Foxlee

contrast, were both first recorded in Hansard in 1840, communist in 1846, and communism in 1848.) Capitalism was used only twice more in the 1890s, and these three early uses are all negative, collocating with words such as commercialism