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The Specter of Communism

Denmark, 1848

Bertel Nygaard

Among all the new phenomena in recent times, none have appeared as radical and comprehensively subversive as socialism and communism. In France, the center and starting-point of all political movement, socialism and communism has proven to be the

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Who Is a Victim of Communism?

Gender and Public Memory in the Sighet Museum, Romania

Alina Haliliuc

The Memorial Museum of the Victims of Communism and of the Resistance is the main museum of communism in Romania. This article a ends to this museum's politics of representing gender and argues that its exhibits reify resistance to and victimization by the communist regime as masculine. The museum marginalizes women, in general, and renders unmemorable women's lives under Nicolae Ceauşescu's pronatalist regime, in particular. The absence is significant because Romania is the only country in the former communist bloc where women experienced unique forms of systematic political victimization under Ceauşescu's nationalist-socialist politics of forced birth. This article illustrates how the museum's investment in an anti-communist discourse creates a gendered representation of political action under the communist regime.

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A Malady of the Left and an Ethics of Communism

Badiouian Diagnosis, Lacanian Cure, Sartrean Responsibility

Andrey Gordienko

exigency of an ethics of communism ineluctably reemerges in Badiou's mature work as a consequence of two propositions. First, there is no ethics in general, but only ethics of distinct truth-procedures that include politics as well as science, art, and love

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“Communism Happened!”

Experiencing a Multiplicity of Nostalgias

Vasilina Orlova

Soviet period and its mission of constructing Communism as a future for the whole of humanity. It is a nostalgia for a grandiose, messianic project. It is a longing for the past that manifestly cannot be repeated; the idea of attempting to reinstall such

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Chinese Communism and Chinese Feminism

Harriet Evans

From many perspectives, the Chinese Communist Party’s approach to gender equality and feminism offers a shining example of communism’s ideological limitations, and its historical failure to serve women’s interests. From its earliest days, Chinese communism upheld a platform of ‘sexual equality’ (nannü pingdeng), and implemented numerous policies to protect women’s equal rights. Yet its attacks on the epistemological foundations of Western feminism and its denunciation of the latter as little more than ‘bourgeois individualism’ give clear evidence of Miheala Miroiu’s ‘contradictio in terminis’.

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Feminism and Communism

Notes on the Greek Case

Angelika Psarra

If we want to situate the Greek case in a wider discussion as to whether the notion of a ‘Communist Feminism’ constitutes a contradiction in terms, it would be productive, in my view, to shift the question to focus on those aspects which might help us clarify the features specific to Greek history. As is widely known, communism in Greece has not been part of the political establishment and has been subject to harsh and systematic persecutions throughout the twentieth century. Consequently, the question is whether we can characterise the Greek version of communist theory and praxis, as it was expressed by the main source of communist ideas in Greece, the Greek Communist Party (KKE), as ‘feminist’ in any way. To answer this question, however, we should first define exactly what we mean by the term feminist, or whether feminism also includes a communist constituent.

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Gender and Religiosity among the Orthodox Christians in Romania

Continuity and Change, 1945–1989

Maria Bucur

This article questions the claim that in Romania, the post-1990 period was one of radically greater freedom in religious matters, as well as greater religiosity on the part of the population. Instead, it suggests that continuity be er encapsulates the development of religiosity—religious beliefs and their embodiment in specific practices— among Orthodox Christians in Romania in the twentieth century. It also makes visible important imbalances, gaps, and faulty assumptions about the importance of institutions in the daily religious practices and beliefs of most Orthodox populations in the historiography on Orthodoxy in Romania. Scholars have failed to see continuities and have embraced analytical frameworks that stress change, especially around the communist takeover period (1945–1949) and the fall of communism (1989–1990). Central to re-evaluating this trajectory are two aspects of Orthodoxy in Romania: (1) most believers live in the countryside; and (2) women have remained central to the development and maintenance of religious practices in ways that cannot be accounted for through any institutional analysis of the Orthodox Church, because of its both implicit and explicit misogyny.

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Crossing Boundaries

The Case of Wanda Wasilewska and Polish Communism

Agnieszka Mrozik

literature and who, on other occasions, adjusted them to fit into the currently binding political interpretations, thus forcing her into a framework of the dominant remembrance of communism, patriotism, (in)dependence, and so forth. She was a malleable

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Socialist Democracy

Directed Democracy and Social Vision in Socialist Hungary, 1956–1989

Milán Pap

Most of the political regimes of the twentieth century have had their own aspirations for democracy, often in some form qualified by an adjective ( Collier and Levitsky 1997 ). Historical forms of communism, whether totalitarian or authoritarian

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Sartre was not a Marxist

Alfred Betschart

faux lièvres which Sartre wrote as an introduction to Louis Dalmas's book about Yugoslav Communism (published in 1950), Sartre showed a fair knowledge of Marxist theory. He cited not only several important works by Marx— Critique of Hegel's Philosophy