The flow of ecosystem services from coral reefs, seagrass meadows and mangrove forests sustains the livelihoods of billions of people worldwide. Faced with the global degradation of marine and coastal ecosystems, policy makers are increasingly focusing on ecosystem service valuation techniques to encourage conservation and sustainable use of marine resources. Here we provide a review and synthesis of the available information on economic valuation techniques as applied to tropical marine habitats. Our study demonstrates the high variability and lack of consistency in outcomes from these studies. We conclude that, if the concept of ecosystem goods and services is to make a positive contribution towards managing the impacts of humans on the environment, then economic valuation approaches must reflect the inherent limitations of economic theory whilst emphasizing the complexity and heterogeneity of the natural environment and human decision making.
Putting the Right Price on Marine Environments?
Julian Clifton, Leanne C. Cullen-Unsworth and Richard K. F. Unsworth
Kate Pride Brown
success (cf. Saurí 2013 ). Among the reasons for the variable success of water conservation are political conditions ( Teodoro 2010 ). Water conservation policy is an inherently political process, where entrenched interests can find themselves in a deep
Enhancing Community-Based Biodiversity Conservation
Maria Costanza Torri and Thora Martina Herrmann
From time immemorial, local and indigenous communities in India have developed traditions, representations, and beliefs about the forest and biodiversity. The cultural practices and beliefs of a community play a significant role in enhancing community-based initiatives, particularly in achieving sustainability in the long term. Nevertheless, too often conservation policies do not take into consideration the link between the culture of local communities and their environment. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between cultural traditions and practices related to biodiversity and their current status and manifestations is crucial to the concept of effective and sustainable conservation policy. This article examines the traditional practices of the communities in the Sariska region (Rajasthan, India) as well as their beliefs and their values, underlining the special relationship that these tribal and indigenous communities maintain with the forest and their usefulness in community-based conservation. Some conclusive remarks on the importance of adapting conservation approaches to local cultural representations of the environment will be drawn.
Adrian Albano, Els van Dongen and Shinya Takeda
The Philippines is one of the many countries that currently acknowledge the presence of indigenous peoples (IPs) within their territories. This acknowledgment often comes with a formal recognition of the rights of IPs, including the right to practice their customary laws. Because of the equal existence of overarching state laws, this formally leads to a situation of legal pluralism for IPs. For many forest conservation advocates, legal pluralism for IPs, particularly with regard to land ownership and forest management, is expected to help conserve forests. This expectation, however, is founded on the erroneous assumption that the traditional land use of IPs is nondestructive and that traditional land ownership is communal. Using a relatively long historical perspective, this article demonstrates that these assumptions do not apply to the Kalanguya of Tinoc, the Philippines. In contrast to the notion of IPs being market-averse, this article further demonstrates that many Kalanguya have been and remain “capitalists”. The article favors the inclusion of a market-based forest conservation policy, which is arguably consistent with the reality of value pluralism.
Indigenous Resurgence, Decolonization, and Movements for Environmental Justice
this critical engagement with land ontologies by problematizing wildlife conservation policies and related hunting regulations that are antithetical to Indigenous views, interrupt Indigenous lifeways, and contribute to the destruction of Indigenous
An Indigenous Critique of the North American Model of Wildlife Conservation
Lauren Eichler and David Baumeister
The North American Model of Wildlife Conservation (hereafter NAM) is an umbrella term for a set of conservation policies and principles that has in recent decades become the prevailing doctrine within US and Canadian wildlife protection and
Analyzing the Social-Ecological Impacts of Forest Conservation and Management over the Long Term
Daniel C. Miller, Pushpendra Rana and Catherine Benson Wahlén
example, the use of experimental (e.g., randomized control trials, or RCTs) and quasi-experimental methods (henceforth, we refer to these two methods as IE for impact evaluation) to evaluate conservation policies and programs has increased considerably
Franco Ruzzenenti and Aleksandra Wagner
conservation policy. Khazzoom’s 1980 article sparked a volley of criticism, albeit still confined to the academic milieu. During a meeting of the International Association for Energy Economics in 1986, Amory Lovins, a champion of energy efficiency renowned for
Ideology, Epistemology, and the Measurement of Human Population Growth on Protected Area Edges
David M. Hoffman
) implore conservationists to include economic and social justice issues in their approaches, stating that investing in women’s education and family planning should be a conservation policy. At this same time, the potential for conflicts between PAs and the
Capturing the impress of boredom and inactivity
( Gătejel 2013 ). To move about the city, Romanians at that time relied almost exclusively on public transportation. Energy conservation policies, however, caused Bucharest’s extensive constellation of trams, trolley buses, and the Metro to run irregularly