Prior to the late 1960s, German history textbooks lacked coverage of Poland and depicted Germany's eastern neighbor with negative images. The 1970s and 1980s, however, witnessed positive changes to the contents of German school textbooks—particularly with respect to their descriptions of Poland and German-Polish relations. How and why did Germany promote a more reflective view of history and correct negative descriptions of the Poles in German history textbooks between the 1970s and 1980s? This article addresses this question by focusing on the influence of Brandt's Ostpolitik and on the activities of the German-Polish History Textbook Commission. The article also shows how contemporary conservative reaction was not powerful enough to reverse these positive changes to German history textbooks.
Brandt's Ostpolitik, the German-Polish History Textbook Commission, and Conservative Reaction
Protest and Voting in East Germany’s Revolution, 1989-1990
made the revolution famous? These are the questions tackled in this article. The motivating metaphor used in the article is Thermidor. It refers to the conservative reaction to revolutionary radicalism. Thermidor was the eleventh month of the French
Meike J. de Goede
which this occurs in response to perceived domination ( MacGaffey 1983 , 1984 , 1986 ; Sinda 1972 ). The Kongo messianic tradition, to which Matsouanism culturally belongs, is generally understood as a conservative reaction to domination, foreign or