before. In this context, protesters demanded the resignation of the government, the organization of new elections, and the rewriting of the constitution ( Pálsson and Durrenberger 2015 ). In early 2009, after months of protests, the government finally
Public Protest and Community-Building in Post–Economic Collapse Iceland
The First Fifty Years in the History of the German Federal Constitutional Court
Manfred H. Wiegandt
Basic Law ( Grundgesetz ), what West Germany’s “provisional” constitution was called to indicate that a real constitution for a reunited Germany would come at some point in the future, was a reaction to the perceived shortcomings of the Weimar Republic
An Analysis of the Newspaper Yomiuri Shimbun
Makoto Harris Takao
. 47 However, the relevant Article 28 of the Meiji Constitution was not, in fact, an articulation of religious freedom in its most true sense, but a nominal form of protection limited by the very terminology employed in its composition. 48 As Jason A
On 4 December 2016, a large majority of Italian voters turned down the most comprehensive and cohesive attempt to revise significant parts of the Constitution since 1948, namely, to overcome the country’s symmetrical bicameralism, to establish new state-region relations, and to streamline institutions, in part by abolishing the provinces and the National Council for Economics and Labor. This chapter offers an outline of the reform, which had been boldly approved by Parliament, and places it within its political and institutional context. It identifies the changes that the reform was set to introduce, attempts to assess the effects it would have had if it had been passed in the referendum, and considers some of the consequences of its rejection.
This article examines the complex interplay between the American military governor and German political leaders through an analysis of two crises that occurred over the making of the Basic Law. Why did a trial of strength between General Lucius Clay and the Social Democratic Party leadership in March and April 1949 come about? Understanding Clay's intervention in the politics of constitution-making in occupied Germany requires a more probing investigation than references to the temperament of a “proconsul” or a bias against a left-wing party. The analysis of Clay's intervention in this account shows how the Social Democrats evaded and challenged directives from the occupation authorities, and illuminates the limits of his influence over German framers of the Basic Law.
Agnes G. Loeffler
This article offers an analysis of two medical case histories presented by an Iranian allopathic physician to illustrate the power of diet in the management of disease. Uncovering underlying cultural assumptions about health and health maintenance strategies leads to the following insights: (1) Galenic medical ideas have not been replaced by allopathic theories in the world view of Iranian physicians; (2) allopathic medical treatment options (pharmaceuticals) are applied to indigenous disease categories; (3) there is deep-seated scepticism about etiologic theories of allopathic medicine and its ability to treat certain conditions; (4) the authority of allopathic medicine is not unquestioned in Iran.
As the current debates about the headscarf in Germany and France
demonstrate, “Islamic” veils and headscarves garner attention for
minority women in Europe to an unparalleled degree.2 For centuries,
Islamic veils and headscarves have served as powerful symbols in
Orientalist discourse, functioning as markers of the Oriental woman’s
supposed eroticism as well as convenient tropes for philosophers.3
Recent kidnappers’ demands in Iraq that France lift its headscarf ban
demonstrate the complex appropriations of Muslim women for fundamentalist
discourses as well.
Retrieving the Africanist (Liberatory) Conception of Non-racialism
the liberation movement. Non-racialism in the ‘New’ South Africa In the years following the negotiated settlement of the early 1990s and especially since the adoption of the new constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (hereinafter
The Unavoidable Democracy of Mid-Nineteenth-Century Denmark
Anne Engelst Nørgaard
central slogan in the Danish monarchy in 1848. On the periphery of the European revolutions, democracy developed into an important concept in the struggle for the constitution. Previously, democracy had only been an occasional guest in political
Jeffrey B. Griswold
Holinshed's Chronicles of Scotland and then turn to Macbeth , to consider how Shakespeare reimagines the relationship between humans and their environment. By putting accounts of the humoral constitution of the night air in conversation with current