apologised and withdrew the advertisement's circulation. This time, as the advertisement mentions, is the time of contagion, which attaches a differential burden on women domestic workers in the Indian sub-continent. The mother and daughter actresses from
Resuming Domestic Work in Households after the Lockdown
Louise K. Davidson-Schmich
This article examines the candidates for the 2009 Bundestag election and asks three questions. First, did German political parties comply with their voluntarily-adopted gender quotas for their electoral lists—both in terms of the numbers of women nominated and their placement on the party list? Second, did parties without gender quotas place female candidates in promising list places? In other words, did quotas exert a “contagion effect“ and spur political groups without quotas to promote women's political careers? Third, what propensity did all parties have to nominate female candidates for direct mandate seats? Did the quotas used for the second vote have a spillover effect onto the first vote, improving women's odds of being nominated for constituency seats? I find that while the German parties generally complied with the gender quotas for their electoral lists, these quotas have had only limited contagion effects on other parties and on the plurality half of the ballot. Gender quotas in their current form have reached their limits in increasing women's representation to the Bundestag. To achieve gender parity, a change in candidate selection procedures, especially for direct mandates, would be required.
Complicating the Medieval Leper through Gender and Social Status
Christina Welch and Rohan Brown
, there was no real cure for leprosy and no proper understanding of how this slow contagion spread. Furthermore, there was no real diagnosis and almost any skin condition could fall under the leprous label. Perhaps most significantly, during this period of
The social purity ‘crusade’ that gathered force after 1885 initiated a change both in ways of representing prostitution and in public opinion about ways of dealing with the sexually deviant woman. Since the 1860s the police had been granted the power under the Contagious Diseases Acts to apprehend women of doubtful virtue in the streets and insist that they be medically examined; if found to be diseased, they could then be detained in lock hospitals. Once these acts were repealed in 1885, prostitutes had greater freedom but were also kept under surveillance by philanthropists and the medical profession. A variety of discourses constructed the prostitute either as an innocent victim of male lust or as a ‘demon’ and ‘contagion of evil’. Judith Walkowitz has argued that such an ideological framework excluded the experience of women who drifted into this lifestyle temporarily, and provided ‘a restrictive and moralistic image’ of the fallen woman. Arguably, literary representations of prostitutes tended to flesh out the potentially restrictive images used in feminist, medical and periodical writing on the subject, though no form of discourse was immune to the strong influence of the language of purity used by the members of the National Vigilance Association (NVA) and its advocates.
Mediterranean Travel, Plague, and Quarantine in the Late Eighteenth Century
Our recent experiences of quarantine during the COVID-19 outbreak have exposed the vulnerability of poorer members of society and has highlighted their increased suffering during the period of restricted mobility. This article considers the way in which quarantine exacerbates inequalities from a historical perspective, looking at enforced periods of restricted travel and its impact on servants and lower-class British travelers of the eighteenth century in Europe. It examines both the history of representations of plague and contagion, and some of the human reactions to fears of disease, one of which was the imposition of quarantine measures. Three main sources are referred to: Patrick Brydone’s A Tour through Sicily and Malta in a Series of Letters to William Beckford, published in 1790; Elizabeth, Lady Craven’s “A Journey through the Crimea to Constantinople in a series of Letters,” published in 1789; and the unpublished letters of William Fletcher, manservant to Lord Byron, from his journeys in 1811. The texts produced by these travelers from the eighteenth century offer rich material for the consideration of the impact of mobility and immobility both of and on the body and how these experiences were strikingly different depending on the social class of the traveler.
Paying Attention to Social Media
, that emotional states can be transferred to others via emotional contagion, leading people to experience the same emotions without their awareness.’ See: Kramer, Adam D. I., Guillory, Jamie E., and Hancock, Jeffrey T., ‘Experimental Evidence of Massive
’. Real or rumoured, English travellers to Wales crossed a border through which safety and nation increasingly intertwined. The narrative of cross-border contagion took statistical shape when early data from King's College London's COVID-19 Symptom Study
decree on 27 May 1907. After World War I, the combination of public health crises, racialized fears of contagion, and the objective of mise en valeur prompted the colonial state to make Muslim villagers in the communes mixtes a more systematic target
Emotions, Evolution, and Climate Change
Debra J. Davidson
prevailing norms (see also Menges and Kilduff 2015 ). The concept of emotional contagion, however, goes one step further, describing the direct transfer of emotional states from one individual to another, or the capacity for people to “catch” emotional
Embodying Prison Boundaries
Manuela Ivone Cunha
within this circle of relationships in pre-carceral life: a non-user dealer with a non-dealer, drug-user husband, and a drug-user son who stole valuables from home to make some money. Contagion This conjunction was similar to, and coherent with