This article concerns a type of change involving implementation of 'traveling models'—procedural cultural plans of how to do some-thing done somewhere elsewhere. Specifically, it concerns the World Bank's traveling model of oil revenue distribution in support of Chadian development. It finds that this model is failing and that dystopia is developing in its stead. A contrasting explanation, which examines the contradictions and consequences of Chadian patrimonialism and US imperialism, is proposed to account for this state of affairs. Finally, the analysis is shown to have implications for conceptualizing patrimonialism and planning development.
Oil, Empire, and Patrimonialism in Contemporary Chad
Stephen P. Reyna
Reading into Othello’s Indian/Iudean Crux in the First Hebrew Translation
of the omnipotence of the Hebrew language and instead called for Hebrew translations. This could be understood as a strategy with clear goals, what Gideon Toury referred to as a ‘cultural planning’. As Toury asserts, the translations’ goals were