This article examines some of Langlois's major works on nineteenth-century French Catholicism, which taken together suggest a vision langloisienne defined by three central, intimately interrelated insights. First, for Langlois a chronology of French Catholicism based on an assumption of an ineluctable process of dechristianization needs to be replaced by a more nuanced and contingent understanding of the evolution of belief and practice. Second, a revised chronology illuminates important sectors of creative vitality within Catholicism, particularly with regard to female religious congregations. Third, historians of religion must be willing to use a variety of methods in exploring their subject; social scientific approaches are crucial, but they complement rather than replace traditional narrative, biography, and a close reading of literary texts. The article concludes with reflections on the normative posture that is implicit in Langlois's historical writing, a position based on his commitment to the values of toleration and equality.
Claude Langlois's work on the French Revolution captures the experience of ordinary people in the country as a whole. Against an interpretation that sees the Revolution as resulting in a secular, modernized France, he emphasizes the ambiguity and uncertainties of the outcome. He is above all interested in assessing the impact of the Revolution on the Church. Although the Revolution had a profound impact on the personnel, landscape, finances, and politics of the Church, the Concordat created the conditions for recovery. There were restorations in pastoral care and practices but in addition, there were also ruptures, especially in the long term. Alongside a nineteenth century of unexpected piety, there were also regions and groups of low practice and indifference. The article also discusses Langlois's contributions to the political history of the coup of 1799, and to population studies.
A Spanish Legacy
, ‘Romances judeo-españoles de Marruecos’, Revista de Filología 6 (1944), 36–76, 105–138, 255–279, 313–381; Samuel G. Armistead and Joseph H. Silverman, ‘Christian Elements and De-Christianization in the Sephardic Romancero’, in Collected Studies in Honour
Sexual Autonomy and the End of the French Republic in Michel Houellebecq’s Submission
Ibid., 133. 36 Ibid., 83. 37 Ibid. 38 Ibid., 45. Todd speaks of “zombie Catholics” as a silent majority of French men and women who, although essentially de-Christianized, adhere to a set of values that grow out of the assumptions of French Christian
Elizabeth C. Macknight
-century men, which the bishop of Chartres deplored as a sign of de-Christianization. 22 Historical studies of religious-based opposition to French republicanism tend to focus on the western half of France, particularly the Vendée, an area steeped in
Daniela R. P. Weiner
, asserted that the American Subcommission members “have in mind the dechristianization of education.” Given Washburne's contacts with Ferretti, Carroll feared that, without Gayre to restrain the American members of the Subcommission, the outcome would be
Sheila K. Hoffman, Dominique Poulot, Bruno Brulon-Soares, and Joanna Cobley
, wonders “what a sublime building like Notre-Dame de Paris represents in a touristic and dechristianized society? A question for which practically no one could be prepared, with the exception of priests used to celebrating Mass there. And suddenly we