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’Tis but a Habit in an Unconsolidated Democracy

Habitual Voting, Political Alienation and Spectatorship

Anthony Lawrence A. Borja

Political Alienation and Democratisation in the Philippines The electoral process can be considered as a basic component of a democracy or, specifically, as a source of legitimacy for government authority and legislation. For this reason one

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Democratising Global Governance

Democratic Theory and Democracy beyond Borders

Anthony G. McGrew

The prospect of a global economic recession, in the wake of the financial crises in the world’s emerging economies, has injected a sense of renewed urgency into longstanding discussions about the reform of global economic governance. But the calls for greater transparency and openness in the deliberations of the International Monetary Fund and World Bank are largely symptomatic of a deeper legitimation crisis which afflicts all the key institutions of global governance, including the United Nations itself. For there is a growing perception that existing mechanisms of global governance are both ineffectual in relation to the tasks they have acquired, especially so in managing the consequences of globalisation, whilst also being unaccountable sites of power.

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Pasi Ihalainen

This paper suggests that the study of the modernisation of European political cultures in the eighteenth century would greatly benefit from a comparative conceptual historical approach. is approach would effect the reconstruction of a variety of meanings attached to chosen political concepts in different national contexts through the side-by-side analysis of primary sources originating from each case according to the methodology of both historical semantics and pragmatics. A promising research topic is the continuity and change in the conceptualisation of national community, national identity, popular sovereignty and democracy in various European political cultures. e conceptual analyses of late eighteenth-century political sermons from five northwestern European countries, conducted by the author, for example, reveal that conceptual changes related to the rise of nationalism took place even within public religion, allowing it to adapt itself to the age of nationalism. Further analysis of the secular debates taking place in representative bodies and public discourse in late eighteenth-century Britain, the Dutch Republic and Sweden elucidates the gradual development of the notion that all political power is ultimately derived from the people and that such a system constituted a "democracy" in a positive sense within different parliamentary traditions and perhaps even before the French Revolution.

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Gustavo H. Dalaqua

dint of an analysis of the CIS, I show how direct participation mechanisms can democratise representative government. 3 Like legislative theatre in general, the CIS harnesses democracy to political representation. Democracy and Representation in

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Sarah Amsler

questions underpinned struggles to democratise the modern university throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and have again assumed strategic importance for reformers in the twenty-first. As Anglo-American models of the liberal and public

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Milica Mihailovic

In the Balkans, the factor that influences the work of institutions most significantly is transition. As far as countries from East, Southeast or Central Europe are concerned, as well as countries from the post-Soviet bloc, the term ‘transition’ generally refers to democratisation. However, for the country that was called Yugoslavia until just a few months ago, and which is now called Serbia and Montenegro, ‘transition’ includes the restoration of completely ruined institutions, the regeneration of the economy, the modernisation of a dated telecommunications system, as well as dealing with the after-effects of the bombing campaign, revitalising its depressed people and many other things.

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Going Nowhere

Tourist Practices and Photographic Representations of Tourists in Small World by Martin Parr

Maria Nilsson

There are few places where a contemporary traveller can ignore the fact that tourism has become much more than an individual act. The tourism industry has grown rapidly, in particular since the 1950s (Smith 1989: 1) and tourism is currently one of the largest sectors of the global economy. More people engage in leisure travel today than ever before, a result of increased affluence and leisure time among inhabitants of the world’s most wealthy countries. If you have the money, it is easier now than ever to travel to far-away places. The flip-side of this coin of mobility is an increased pressure on host cultures (Smith 1989: 17) and the transformation of the most visited places into attractions (MacCannell 1976: 52) catering to the ever-increasing number of tourists. Some critics, like Urry, see the growth of tourism as a democratisation of travel (1990: 156) while others, including Smith and MacCannell, lament the homogenisation and commercialisation of tourist attractions.

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Douglas Kellner

As the third millennium unfolds, one of the most dramatic technological and economic revolutions in history is advancing a set of processes that are changing everything from the ways in which people work to the ways that they communicate with each other and spend their leisure time. The technological revolution centres on computer, information, communication, and multimedia technologies. These are key aspects of the production of a new economy, described as postindustrial, post-Fordist, and postmodern, accompanied by a networked society and cyberspace, and the juggernaut of globalisation. There are, of course, furious debates about how to describe the Great Transformation of the contemporary epoch, whether it is positive and negative, and what the political prospects for democratisation and radical social transformation are.

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The Bi-Cycling Mr Hoopdriver

Counter-Sporting Victorian Reviving the Carnivalesque

Yoonjoung Choi

In much of his work, H. G. Wells consciously criticises the conservativeness of contemporary sports such as cricket and emphasises cycling as a recreational sport which contributes to the democratisation of social class and gender. This stance is apparent in Wells's first social novel, The Wheels of Chance (1896) which captures the fin-de-siècle passion for cycling but also its social impact. For Wells, Victorian team/spectacle sports such as rugby, football, horseracing, and boxing are overtly competitive, promoting gentlemen's amateur sportsmanship and masculinity. This essay argues that The Wheels of Chance, by featuring recreational cycling as the main motif and casting an unfit draper as the protagonist, is an indirect criticism of gentlemen's sporting activities. It creates a space of amusement where strict rules are shunned in favour of casual pastime, generating carnivalesque games and performances in the Bakhtinian sense. It explores the author's will to change the social order through the carnivalesque, in the ambivalent depiction of Mr Hoopdriver's bi-cycling as play.

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Understanding Agency: Social Theory and Responsible Action, by Barry Barnes. London: Sage Publications, 2000. Reviewed by Christine MacDonald

Rationality and Power: Democracy in Practice, by Bent Flyvbjerg. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998. Reviewed by Roger Deacon

Is Data Human? The Metaphysics of Star Trek, by Richard Hanley. Basic Books, 1997. Reviewed by Deane Baker

The Skeptical Environmentalist, by Bjorn Lomborg. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Reviewed by Julia de Kadt

Edward Said and the Writing of History, by Shelley Walia. Icon/Totem Books, 2001. Edward Said: A Critical Introduction, by Valerie Kennedy. Cambridge: Polity, 2000. The Edward Said Reader, edited by Moustafa Bayoumi, Andrew Rubin and Edward Said. Vintage Books, 2000. Reviewed by Derek Hook

Lenin: A Biography, by Robert Service. London: Macmillan, 2000. Reviewed by Derek Hook

Citizenship and Democracy in a Global Era, edited by Andrew Vandenberg. Macmillan and St Martin’s Press, 2000. Reviewed by Kirsten Trotter

Democracy as Public Deliberation: New Perspectives, edited by Maurizio Passerin d’Entrèves. Perspectives on Democratisation Series. Manchester University Press: Manchester and New York, 2002. Reviewed by Laurence Piper