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From Wakīl to Numā’indah

A History of Urdu Concepts for Political Representation in North India, 1858–1919

Eve Tignol

to Muslim descriptive representation during the anti-Congress campaigns in the late 1880s. These claims were endorsed by the 1909 Indian Councils Act after the Simla Deputation of 1906. In 1915, as local self-government was being discussed, the term

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The Politics of Presence Revisited

Anne Phillips and Hans Asenbaum


Almost three decades after its first publication, Anne Phillips reflects on the Politics of Presence in the context of contemporary developments from #MeToo to Black Lives Matter. Granting the importance of a contingent and intersectional understanding of presence, she reemphasizes the necessity of descriptive representation. Phillips reflects on questions of anonymity, essentialism, the multiple self, unconditional equality, and the current role of feminist research in democratic theory. She also opens perspectives toward mending the divide between a politics of recognition and a politics of distribution.

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Financing Gender Equality

Budgets for Women's Policies in German and Austrian Länder

Ayse Dursun, Sabine Lang, and Birgit Sauer

cleavages, the descriptive representation of women in decision-making bodies, the locality of decision-making, and financing for specific policy arenas. The analysis builds on Länder wpa spending on gender policies in both states over the past three

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“Revenge of the East”?

The AfD's Appeal in Eastern Germany and Mainstream Parties’ Responses

Jennifer A. Yoder

may be particularly relevant as disrupters and as alternatives to established parties, patterns of elite-mass relations, and policy prescriptions. Descriptive representation, whereby representatives roughly reflect the demographic or other identitive

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The Quest for Gender Parity

Angela Merkel and the Diversification of Electoral Politics in Germany

Joyce Marie Mushaben

background witnessed a very modest increase in descriptive representation, from 8.2 percent to 11.3 percent; nearly half (49 percent) were elected for the first time. Among these delegates, only 17 (34 percent) trace their lineage back to eu 27 states or

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Protest Voting in Eastern Germany

Continuity and Change Across Three Decades

David F. Patton

, cultural and academic structures, which, coupled with the dismissal of former gdr elite, decreased descriptive representation for easterners in unified Germany. 15 In mid 1991, 84 percent of eastern Germans regarded themselves as second-class citizens

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Justice and the Politics of Identity

Becoming and Structure in Iris Young

Michaele L. Ferguson

, she offers her own vision of becoming that pairs an account of individuals as self-creating with a politics of structural transformation. Democratic Representation of Structural Groups We can now see how in Inclusion Young rejects descriptive

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This Was the One for Me

AfD Women's Origin Stories

Christina Xydias

,” Politics & Gender , 10 (2014): 4–32. 6 Jennifer M. Piscopo, “Rethinking Descriptive Representation: Rendering Women in Legislative Debates,” Parliamentary Affairs , 64, no. 3 (2011): 448–472; Xydias (see note 5). 7 Miki Caul, “Women's Representation in

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Book Reviews

Joyce Marie Mushaben, Shelley Baranowski, Trevor J. Allen, Sabine von Mering, Stephen Milder, Volker Prott, and Peter C. Pfeiffer

-selecting) men. In numerical terms (descriptive representation), women’s physical presence in European legislative chambers has increased dramatically, compared to the United States, where women are not expected to reach parity in Congress until 2117. German

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Unpacking Gender Images across Angela Merkel’s Four Campaigns for the Chancellorship, 2005–2017

Joyce Marie Mushaben

alternative” on a changing political stage provide us with a unique opportunity to assess the changing impact of gender variables on election campaigns in Germany. While many scholars concentrate on descriptive representation ( dr ), that is, women’s physical