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Linking social policy, migration, and development in a regional context

The case of sub-Saharan Africa

Katja Hujo

English abstract: International migration is driven by development processes and, at the same time, it impacts development through labor market effects, remittance flows, knowledge transfers, social change in households and communities and responses at the policy and institutional levels. Although the development potential of migration is now widely recognized, we still observe that migration, and in particular, the free movement of people and the access of migrants to sociopolitical rights, remains a highly contested and sensitive political issue. This is not only the case with regard to migration from developing countries to industrialized countries in the North, but also for migration at a regional level and within regional integration projects such as common markets or political and monetary unions. This article discusses the linkages between migration, development, social policy and regional integration. The focus is on migration in sub-Saharan Africa, its impact on development and migrants' rights and implications for public policies including new forms of migration governance.

Spanish abstract: La migración internacional es impulsada por los procesos de desarrollo y, al mismo tiempo, tiene un impacto en el desarrollo a través de sus efectos en el mercado de trabajo, los flujos de remesas, las transferencias de conocimientos, el cambio social en los hogares y en las comunidades, así como las respuestas a nivel político e institucional. Aunque actualmente el potencial de desarrollo de la migración es ampliamente reconocido, todavía observamos que la migración y, en particular, la libre circulación de personas y el acceso de los migrantes a más derechos sociopolíticos, sigue siendo una cuestión política muy controvertida y sensible. Este no es sólo el caso con respecto a la migración de los países en desarrollo a los países industrializados del Norte, también ocurre en la migración a nivel regional y en los proyectos de integración regional tales como los mercados comunes o uniones políticas y monetarias. Este artículo analiza los vínculos entre la migración, el desarrollo, la política social y la integración regional. La atención se centra en la migración en el África Subsahariana, su impacto sobre el desarrollo y los derechos de los migrantes, así como sus implicaciones en las políticas públicas, incluyendo nuevas formas de gobernanza de la migración.

French abstract: La migration internationale est pilotée par les processus de développement et, dans un même temps, impacte sur le développement à travers ses effets sur le marché du travail, les transferts de fonds des migrants, les transferts de connaissances, le changement social dans les ménages et les communautés, ainsi que les réponses qu'elle occasionne au niveau politique et institutionnel. Bien que le potentiel de développement des migrations soit désormais largement reconnu, nous observons encore que la migration, et en particulier la libre circulation des personnes et l'accès des migrants aux droits socio-politiques, reste une question politique très controversée et sensible. Cela ne concerne pas seulement le cas des flux migratoires des pays en développement vers les pays industrialisés du Nord, mais également les flux migratoires générés au niveau régional et dans les contextes d'intégration régionale tels que les marchés communs ou les unions politiques et monétaires. Cet article examine les liens entre la migration, le développement, la politique sociale et l'intégration régionale. L'accent est mis sur la migration en Afrique sub-saharienne, son impact sur le développement et les droits des migrants, ainsi que leurs impacts sur les politiques publiques, y compris les nouvelles formes de gouvernance migratoires.

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Poetics of Development

Ananta Kumar Giri

for those for whom it resonates. — Charles Taylor (2011: 59–60) , “Celan and the Recovery of Language” Introduction and Invitation Development is a multidimensional aspiration, struggle, sadhana (striving), and process of change and transformation

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Policy coherence for development and migration

Analyzing US and EU policies through the lens of normative transformation

Harlan Koff

The European Union’s 2015–2016 “migration/asylum crisis” gave renewed prominence to discussions over the relationship between migration, security and development in global affairs. The EU’s policy responses to these flows have confirmed that

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Contesting Paradigms in Society’s Poverty Alleviation and Development Arena

Theoretical Debates on Agency

Sunday Paul Chinazo Onwuegbuchulam and Khondlo Mtshali

initiatives and to make decisions in given realms. Here, the struggle is one marked not by mutual empowerment but by mutually exclusive goals. ( Migdal 1994: 24 ) In the fields of political science, public policy, and development studies, the issue of

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Feminism and Development

Building the Discipline or Politicising It?

David Lempert

Although initial contributions of Women's Studies to the field of Development Studies were to question existing concepts and assumptions and to offer new models and inclusive approaches, it appears that contemporary scholarship has shifted entirely (and even unapologetically) into political advocacy with little further in the way of social science or fresh critique and modelling. In Development Studies, Applied Anthropology and possibly in other subfields where gender concerns are presented in 'single-variable' or 'interest-group' perspectives, it may now be time to return to earlier goals through a depoliticisation of 'Feminist' and 'Women's' Studies, appropriately integrating 'Gender Studies' and concerns into subfields in ways that promote holistic advance of those fields. The essay uses two recent books with alternative examinations of feminism in developing societies – one on the area of 'development' and one on relations of two 'developed' countries, the U.S. and Russia – as springboards for a discussion of what has gone wrong and what can be changed in the sub-field of gender and Development Studies.

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Regional and sub-regional effects on development policies

The Benelux and the Nordic countries compared

Lauri Siitonen

and Sweden). 2 The Benelux and Nordic countries include the five best performing donors of development aid (Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the three Scandinavian countries 3 ) as well as two relatively well-performing ones (Belgium and Finland

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Violence, Development, and Canada’s New Transnational Jurisprudence

Eliza Guyol-Meinrath Echeverry

rights, and development. Far from being isolated incidents of sexual violence and forced labor, the human rights violations committed against the plaintiffs in Caal v. Hudbay and Araya v. Nevsun occurred within broader historical frameworks. To fully

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Of choice, chance and contingency

‘Career strategies’ and tactics for survival among Yoruba women traders*

Andrea Cornwall

Women's economic empowerment has come to play an increasingly prominent role in the policies of mainstream development agencies. This article draws on fieldwork amongst small‐scale traders in southwestern Nigeria to suggest that the capacity of traders to exercise ‘choice’ is more complex than development narratives suggest. Deploying de Certeau's (1984) distinction between strategies and tactics, the article argues that making clear‐cut, choices is dependent on having the power to realise them: power that many women in this as in other settings, including those with considerable buying and spending power, are not in a position to fully exercise. Women's struggles for success and survival in this context, the article argues, are waged in domains where their positions as agents are relational, situational, and above all, provisional. As members of families, associations and hearth‐holds, their abilities to make active, purposive, choices are constantly reconfigured in relation to these others. ‘Empowerment’ may be defined by mainstream development agencies as a destination, but looking more closely at the experiences of poor women in this setting reveals journeys along pathways that may be pitted with obstacles, in which chance and contingency may play as much of a part as deliberate choice, and for which tactics are needed for survival as well as success. A central argument in this article, then, is for the need to factor contingency into representations of women's working lives in development discourse, which in turn calls for an approach that can accommodate the mediation of agency and the tensions between autonomy and connectedness that course through women's lives.

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Development and Migration--Migration and Development

What Comes First? Global Perspective and African Experiences

Stephen Castles

Socio-economic change and human mobility are constantly interactive processes, so to ask whether migration or development comes first is nonsensical. Yet in both popular and political discourse it has become the conventional wisdom to argue that promoting economic development in the Global South has the potential to reduce migration to the North. This carries the clear implication that such migration is a bad thing, and poor people should stay put. This 'sedentary bias' is a continuation of colonial policies designed to mobilise labour for mines and plantations, while preventing permanent settlement in the cities. European policy-makers and academics are particularly concerned with flows from Africa, and measures taken by the European Union and its member states are often designed to reduce these - often in the guise of well-meaning development policies. By contrast, many migration scholars regard human mobility as a normal part of social transformation processes, and a way in which people can exercise agency to improve their livelihoods. This article examines these problems, first by providing a brief history of academic debates on international migration and development. It goes on to look at the politics of migration and development, using both EU policy and African approaches as examples. An alternative approach to migration and development is presented, based on a conceptual framework derived from the analysis of social transformation processes.

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Uneven development in the Papua New Guinea highlands

Mining, corporate social responsibility, and the “life market”

Jerry K. Jacka

Over the last 20 years, Papua New Guinea has been at the center of a resource development boom as mining, petroleum, and logging companies extract the rich resources of this tropical Pacific island. As 97 percent of the country is owned by customary groups who correspondingly receive benefits from extraction, resource development has the potential to integrate local communities into the global economy in beneficial ways. Often, though, this is not the case, as small factions of landowners control the bulk of development proceeds. In this article, I examine the development of a coffee growing scheme adjacent to the world-class Porgera Gold Mine, intended to help local people who are marginal to mining benefit streams. Tragically, however, instead of engaging in coffee production, many disenfranchised young men in Porgera prefer to work in the “life market”—a term they use to describe tribal warfare in which groups not receiving benefits attack benefit-receiving groups in the attempt to extort monetary payments. Not only are individuals' lives at stake in the life market, but so too are the economic conditions—coffee and gold mining—that allow the life market's very existence.