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Jakob Rigi

The protest movement that emerged in Iran in the wake of the presidential election of 2009 has seen a subsequent decline due to the combined effects of repression and the timidity of the reformist leadership. The growing conflict between Ayatollah Ali Khamenei and Mahmoud Ahmadinejad around the upcoming parliamentary election of March 2012 has created a new political crisis. The radical section of the movement tries to use this split to launch a subversive strategy against the Islamic regime. Alternatively, Khamenei tries to rid himself of the last vestiges of the autonomy of any elected institution and establish a full theocratic dictatorship. Iranian society has two choices—either to subvert the Khamenei regime or to be subjugated by it.

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The New Spanish Memory Comics

The Example of Cuerda de presas

Anne Magnussen

Since the end of the 1990s, more and more Spanish comics have focused on the recent Spanish past, including the memory of the Civil War (1936–1939) and the succeeding dictatorship. This article offers an analysis of a particular comics volume, Cuerda de presas (2005) by Jorge García and Fidel Martínez, and discusses the way in which it interprets the role of the past in Spanish society thirty years after the political transition to democracy. I argue that Cuerda de presas participates in the questioning of the dominant memory about the past. It does this by undermining narrative coherence and by pointing to the plural and unstable characteristics of memories. Charles Peirce's semiotics constitutes the framework for the analysis, according to which there is a dynamic relationship between Cuerda de presas and Spanish society.

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Kira Mahamud Angulo and Yovana Hernández Laina

political change and democracy, while the Spanish nationalism/patriotism of the dictatorship persisted even during the process of economic liberalization. National identity is therefore, according to Dick Bryan, increasingly “tied to a notion of ‘national

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The Will of the People?

Carl Schmitt and Jean-Jacques Rousseau on a Key Question in Democratic Theory

Samuel Salzborn

). Identitarian democracy thus becomes—through the erasure of all liberal elements—an acclamation of the dictatorship ( Schmitt [1921] 2014 ), with the dictator now embodying the will of the people and manufacturing its identity, in concrete terms by excluding all

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Showcasing Dictatorship

Memory and the Museum in Argentina and Chile

Jens Andermann

This article compares two recently inaugurated museums dedicated to the period of dictatorial terror and repression in the Southern Cone: the Museum of Memory and Human Rights at Santiago, Chile (opened in 2009), and the Museum of Memory at Rosario, Argentina (2010). Both museums invoke in their very names the "memorial museum" as a new mode of exhibitionary remembrance of traumatic events from the past. They seek to sidestep the detachment and "objectivity" that has traditionally characterized historical museum displays in favor of soliciting active, performative empathy from visitors. Neither of the two institutions, however, complies entirely with the memorial museum's formal characteristics; rather, they reintroduce modern museographical languages of history and art, thus also challenging the emergent "global canon" of memorial museum aesthetics.

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Miniature Bride or Little Girl Religious

First Communion Clothing in Post-war Spanish Culture and Society

Jessamy Harvey

The tradition of religious clothing for children is relatively unexplored: this article develops the premise that debates about the links between the sacred and the market go deeper than concern about consumption, and bring to the surface issues of identity. Through exploring the historical development of the First Communion, not as religious ritual but as Catholic consumer culture, the article turns to analyse girls' communicant dress in Spain between the 1940s and 1960s which were the early decades of a dictatorial Regime (1939 to 1975) marked by an ideology of National-Catholicism. General Francisco Franco y Bahamonde, leader of the military rebellion against the elected government in 1936, ruled Spain until his death. One of my aims is to correct a tendency to make the little girl dressed in bridal wear the most visible sign because to do so disregards the cultural practice of wearing clothing to perform piety, signal a vocation or express gratitude for religious intercession.

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Ander Delgado

Country, as in other parts of Spain, the 1960s and 1970s were years of widespread political change and mobilization. The dictatorship that had lasted for over thirty years began to show its weaknesses. Franco was old and he lacked an obvious successor, and

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Dissenting Voices?

Controlling Children’s Comics under Franco

Rhiannon McGlade

reconditioned the press as a puppet of the state and dominated the publishing industry for the subsequent three decades of the dictatorship. In its preamble, the legislation charged the free press of the republic with engendering ‘Un sistema metódico de

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Michael B. Loughlin

depopulation preceded the war. As the war approached, he found himself arguing that such problems made war more likely by weakening the nation. When war became a reality, he assumed that a strong leader or a military dictatorship might be necessary if the

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Los Roldán and the Inclusion of Travesti Narratives

Representations of Gender-Nonconforming Identities in Argentinian Telenovelas

Martín Ponti

Coupled with the various repressive dictatorships in the region, the term became criminalized and connected to forms of social and sexual deviancy, forcing the community to the margins of society. Upon the return of democratic institutions in 1983