This study argues that the changing relationship between paid work, unpaid work and paid care work and social services, and the struggle over this relationship and its implications, constituted key factors in shaping the ‘state socialist’ gender regime in Hungary from 1949 to the 1980s. The study is based on a wealth of recent scholarship, original sources and Hungarian research conducted during the state socialist period. It tries to give a balanced and inclusive analysis of key elements of women’s and gender history in the state socialist project of ‘catching-up development’ in a semi-peripheral patriarchal society, pointing to constraints, challenges and results of this project. Due to the complex interaction of a variety of actors and factors impacting on and shaping the state socialist gender regime not all women were affected in the same way by state socialist politics and gender struggles. Women’s status and opportunities, as well as gender relations, differed according to class, ethnicity and economic sector. As a rule, the gender struggle over state socialist family and gender arrangements in Hungary sought to reduce or temper tensions and conflicts by avoiding substantial or direct attack against the privileges of men both within the home and elsewhere.
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What Do (Parties Think) Women and LGBTI Citizens Want?
Party Platforms, Gender, and Sexuality in the 2021 German Federal Election
Louise K. Davidson-Schmich
consider parties’ stances on sexual minorities or whether they recognized within-category differences among women. Four electoral periods and numerous policy developments since Xydias's original research, how have party platforms on gender evolved and
are significant differences among women across class, race, ethnicity, religion, and geography, activist politics and informal political life may be better contexts for negotiating these differences than formal politics; as Dryzek (2005 ) has argued
From Femicide to Feminicidio
Latin American Contributions to Feminist Conceptual History
sex role attributed to women to promote consumerism. 20 However, this paradigm did not address the differences among women within the intersection of other categories of difference, such as race, class, sexuality, religion, ethnicity and so on. 21