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The sanctioning state

Official permissiveness and prohibition in India

Ajay Gandhi

strategies and nationalist exclusion. We benefit, particularly, by looking at bureaucratic capabilities that express discretionary authority and bear on differentiated citizenship. Scholars have shown how bureaucratic documentation and communication proved

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Alpa Shah and Sara Shneiderman

This is the introduction to a special section of Focaal that includes seven articles on the anthropology of affirmative action in South Asia. The section promotes the sustained, critical ethnographic analysis of affirmative action measures adopted to combat historical inequalities around the world. Turning our attention to the social field of affirmative action opens up new fronts in the anthropological effort to understand the state by carefully engaging the relationship between the formation and effects of policies for differentiated citizenship. We explore this relationship in the historical and contemporary context of South Asia, notably India and Nepal. We argue that affirmative action policies always transform society, but not always as expected. The relationship between political and socioeconomic inequality can be contradictory. Socioeconomic inequalities may persist or be refigured in new terms, as policies of affirmative action and their experiential effects are intimately linked to broader processes of economic liberalization and political transformation.

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Community Citizenship and Community Social Quality

The British Jewish Community at the Turn of the Twentieth Century

David Phillips

Issues of loyalty, membership and belonging are pertinent to all multicultural societies and are particularly crucial for recent migrants and members of other minority communities in that they are faced with a variety of choices in organising and representing themselves vis-a-vis the majority community. Many of these issues have been discussed in the context of debates on citizenship, and particularly in relation to forms of differentiated citizenship. This paper develops and exemplifies the notion of community citizenship in analysing the strategies taken by members of migrant and other minority communities in dealing with these issues. It is argued here that in some circumstances – particularly in times of large-scale immigration – minority communities can optimise their social quality by undertaking activities normally performed by government agencies. An example is presented in relation to the way the British Jewish community dealt with the influx of Russian and east European Jews at the turn of the twentieth century. Some possible lessons for contemporary analysis of minority communities are then briefly discussed.

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Reclaiming the lake

Citizenship and environment-as-common-property in highland Peru

Mattias Borg Rasmussen

transformation of differentiated citizenship in Brazil . Citizenship Studies 15 ( 3–4 ): 335 – 352 . 10.1080/13621025.2011.565157 Lazar , Sian . 2008 . El Alto, rebel city: Self and citizenship in Andean Bolivia . Durham : Duke University Press . Li

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Violence and public health in the Altamira region

The construction of the Belo Monte hydroelectric plant

Rosa Elizabeth Acevedo Marin and Assis da Costa Oliveira

they become only Brazilians or nationals, acquiring then equal access conditions to citizenship. With the Federal Constitution of 1988, through the disposition of differentiated citizenship of indigenous people in article 231, the definition of

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Unbecoming Veteranship

Convicted Military Officers in Post-authoritarian Argentina

Eva van Roekel and Valentina Salvi

clear example of such differentiated citizenship and claim-making for material and symbolic resources (e.g., “military citizenship,” see Trundle 2012a ). The various states and spaces of exception existing within military citizenship, often outside

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Liberation Autochthony

Namibian Veteran Politics and African Citizenship Claims

Lalli Metsola

Citizenships and the Surge of Autochthony Differentiated citizenship has a long history in Africa. Colonial regimes institutionalized racial hierarchies and ethnic categories and created separate juridical statuses for metropolitan citizens and natives

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Into and Out of Citizenship, through Personal Tax Payments

Romanian Migrants’ Leveraging of British Self-Employment

Dora-Olivia Vicol

migrants, failing to construct oneself as an independent taxpayer left the poor, the digitally illiterate, and those who could not navigate the format of tax returns vulnerable to British immigration enforcement officers. It created spaces of differentiated

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Hollis Moore

University Press . Holston , J. 2011 . ‘ Contesting Privilege with Right: The Transformation of Differentiated Citizenship in Brazil ’. Citizenship Studies 15 ( 3–4 ): 335 – 352 . doi: 10.1080/13621025.2011.565157 . 10