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Clothing and Colours in Early Islam

Adornment (Aesthetics), Symbolism and Differentiation

Hadas Hirsch

discussion in the founding texts of Islam, namely the Koran and later jurisprudence. By analysing the appropriate and inappropriate colours for clothing for differentiated subject populations, a contribution will be made to the understanding of the religious

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Timo Pankakoski and Antto Vihma

concept and metaphor of fragmentation. We also engage with the related ideas of differentiation and modernity. The conceptual history of fragment and fragmentation as social and historical categories has been mostly neglected prior to the analysis we

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Erika Golz

Genre differentiation is possible by external factors (function, communicative situation) and internal factors (grammar, theme). As the external factors for all 18 texts of the corpus are the same, the article relies on internal factors. The cohesive means of genre identification in this corpus are recurrence, time structure, connectivity, grounding, and lexis. The peculiarity of Koriak genre differentiation consists in a preponderance of narrative structures, which are characterized by a sequential time line with passages in scenic present tense and structures of a theme with a following exemplification.

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Steffen Dalsgaard

The adoption of the Kyoto Protocol was a major breakthrough in committing industrialized countries to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases, even if the effect is disputed. The protocol works through mechanisms that ascribe value to the environment in terms of those emissions—a numerical value based on carbon, which is then translated into a monetary value. This article reviews the different understandings of value implicated in debates about the environment seen through carbon. It does this by contrasting the values embedded in some of the various initiatives that have resulted from the Kyoto Protocol, and how they relate to the market, government control, and individual consumer morality, among other things. Controversy over carbon trading is entangled in the capacity of carbon to commensurate a wide range of human and non-human actions via their cost in emissions, which nevertheless is countered by moral differentiation.

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Aimee Haley

, students with low upper-secondary grades are about 6–10 per cent more likely to attend new universities compared to those with high grades regardless of geographical origin, again indicating only slight geographical differentiation. Turning to university

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Karine Michel

Among religious Jews, hair is described as an application of religious law. This article proposes to study the place of hair in Jewish life, based on texts and social expressions. Hair appears to be linked to every important and ritual moment of life, symbolising the movement from one social status to another as a rite of passage. However, based on age and sex, and also on an analysis of different religious tendencies, hair reveals itself as more relevant in terms of social than religious use.

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Wolfgang Schroeder and Rainer Weinert

The approach of the new millennium appears to signal the demise

of traditional models of social organization. The political core of

this process of change—the restructuring of the welfare state—and

the related crisis of the industrywide collective bargaining agreement

have been subjects of much debate. For some years now in

specialist literature, this debate has been conducted between the

proponents of a neo-liberal (minimally regulated) welfare state and

the supporters of a social democratic model (highly regulated). The

alternatives are variously expressed as “exit vs. voice,” “comparative

austerity vs. progressive competitiveness,” or “deregulation vs.

cooperative re-regulation.”

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Inequality and poverty

The ill-fitting pieces in the EU’s development partnerships

Riina Pilke and Marikki Stocchetti

Documents, all published between January 2010 and May 2014. In these documents, we have searched the Commission’s positions for a differentiated approach and actions in fighting inequality in relation to poverty. From there, we have looked at how coherently

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Unhap, Misadventure, Infortune

Chaucer’s Vocabulary of Mischance

Helen Cooper

that happen are subtly differentiated. As a singular noun, it can be specified as positive (‘good aventure’), but it frequently connotes something more threatening. ‘In aventure’ means ‘in jeopardy’, and jeopardy implies a bad outcome. Its accompanying

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Gilad Ben-Nun

differentiation of rights between citizens and peregrini (foreigners) under the latter. As with any ancient text, a good way to fully understand the Jewish view of the qualification of the terms relating to forced migration on the one hand and refugeeness on