This article illustrates the impact of generic differences and changes in the social and political context on the use of emotion concepts such as love and passion in selected Urdu novels from 1869 until 1945. While Nazir Ahmad (1830/31–1912) and Rashid-ul Khairi (1868–1936) in their domestic novels tend to stress the control of passions, particularly in familial relationships, Abdul Halim Sharar (1860–1926) in his Islamic novels/historical romances allows for romantic attraction and propagates religious fervor, bringing him closer to the emotion vocabulary used in contemporary Urdu journalism. This format was later expanded by Nasim Hijazi (1914–1996), who sought to strengthen the enthusiasm of fellow Muslims in their fight for Pakistan. In this highly popular genre strong feelings and passions serve to arouse intense feeling for the Muslim community.
Breaking the Bonds of Marriage in E.M. Forster's A Passage to India
E.M. Forster’s A Passage to India is carefully wrought, formally balanced, stylistically elegant, and maddeningly, deliberately opaque where one wishes most for clarity. The novel recounts what seem to be two only marginally related narratives – the story of Fielding and Aziz and the story of Adela and Ronny. The question, ‘whether or no it is possible to be friends with an Englishman’, the subject of the novel’s first conversation, and which presages the story of Fielding and Aziz, continues long after the story of Adela and Ronny – until, in fact, the book’s closing lines.1 Yet in spite of the novel’s carefully self-conscious structure, it is not at all clear why the answer to this framing thematic question, whether or not Indian and English men can be friends, should be explored in the context of the most conventional of all the conventions of the Anglo-Indian domestic novel: a young girl’s coming to India in order to marry.2 Nor is it clear why friendship between Indian and English men should turn on Aziz’s excursion with Mrs Moore and Adela to the Marabar Caves, although what happens there, and the aftermath, determines the course of friendship between Fielding and Aziz. Why, we might ask, do women emerge at the centre of a question about men? Why is the barrier separating Indian and English men posed in terms of English women’s response to India?