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Introduction

Ecology and Migration in the Middle East

Soheila Shahshahani

In this special issue, not only is the human-environment relationship addressed with a few types of environmental adaptations in rural and urban contexts, including governmental measures and disaster situations, but also the process of culture making is explored through the use of vocabularies in forming mind sets. In this way, a wide spectrum of ideas and situations is portrayed, and the role of culture in making these processes meaningful is shown. The articles in this issue concern Egypt, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan and they also consider migration. While environmental problems are partial causes for migration, yet symbolic reference to parts of that same environment can symbolise the lost land. The role of poetic language is seen here, while poetry itself becomes a means of better adaptation for a migrant.

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J. Cristobal Pizarro and Brendon M. H. Larson

meanings, therefore, represent social-ecological units of study because they contain both sociocultural and ecological information about human-bird relations. In particular, the bird species and meanings documented were triangulated and verified with

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Pamela McElwee

could then be replicated elsewhere. As Robertson notes, “What all assessments and taxonomies have in common is that they produce a number or a tag by which the ecological unit can be named, categorized, and otherwise treated as ordinal data” (2000: 473