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Science, Customs, and the Modern Subject

From Emulation to Education in the Semantics of Spanish Enlightenment

Pablo Sánchez León

the main cultural dimensions fueled by the Enlightenment. 10 What has not been properly underlined is that orientation toward education had a prehistory that relates to the contingencies of another conceptual field: that of emulation. Both shared in

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Johannes Paulmann

The article investigates an essential characteristic of the Federal Republic of Germany's search for self-assurance in foreign cultural representations after World War II. A normative behavioral pattern, described here as an “attitude of restraint,” emerged during the Adenauer era, resulting in representations without emulation. The article focuses on German participation in world fairs-an example that reveals the multi-layered mechanisms linking diplomacy with culture, political attitudes with individual experiences and memories, and foreign relations with social conditions. The formation of an attitude of restraint constituted part of the long-term process of West German self-education and shaped cultural identities in the Federal Republic. The self-assurance re-found during the Adenauer era is placed in the context of political debates about the break with the Nazi past, defense against communist East Germany, and the selective turn toward an international modernity. Furthermore, the article offers an explanation regarding the diffusion of certain behavioral norms through everyday experience and practice.

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“Source de lumières & de vertus”

Rethinking Éducation, Instruction, and the Political Pedagogy of the French Revolution

Adrian O'Connor

This article examines the political pedagogy of the French Revolution and, with that, the revolutionaries' engagement with issues of political community and communication. It proposes that while the distinction between éducation and instruction, or between the development of moral and civic character, on the one hand, and the cultivation of particular skills, on the other, was prominent in eighteenth-century pedagogy and has been influential in our understanding of the Revolution, that same distinction has obscured essential elements of the revolutionaries' pedagogical and political agendas. Attention to the proposals and practices of revolutionary pedagogy, including the revolutionary festivals, reveals that what the revolutionaries called “public instruction” was a dynamic synthesis of civic and technical training, a synthesis that was intended not to foster unquestioning obedience or the obliteration of differences among citizens, but to promote civic communication in ways that would make a participatory politics possible.

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The Market of Honors

On the Bicentenary of the Legion of Honor

Oliver Ihl

This article focuses on the findings of a study of titles and honors in twentieth-century France, in which these signs are analyzed as a government technique in their own right. This article shows how, transformed into a state emulation, a style of bureaucratic authority was created, a mode of coercion that favored an impersonal style of control over and between various corps of administrators, artists, managers, journalists, or elected representatives. A government technique was constituted in the distribution of the croix de la légion d'honneur, the most famous of these decorations—one with a conception of exemplarity (that of marks of distinction serving as a model for behaviors transcending the frame of legal obligations) and an emphasis on the soundness of behaviors, the guarantee and objective of a policy of conduct openly intended to replace the policy of rights or classes inherited from the French Revolution. Philosophers and intellectuals were to transform this intuition into a political paradigm: virtue can also, in its own way, be a rule of policing. Rationalized by a fast-growing bureaucracy, these marks of grandeur that constituted a means of emulation have now been trivialized to the extent of no longer being analyzed as such. Reconsidering the conditions in which they operate, this article proposes an interpretation of uses and functions through which the decoration invented by Napoléon spawned an administration of honors, the crucible of a full-blown government science.

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Introduction

A Focus on the History of Concepts

Eirini Goudarouli

between different cultures. Pablo Sánchez León’s article, “Science, Customs, and the Modern Subject: From Emulation to Education in the Semantics of Spanish Enlightenment,” explores the semantic evolution of a series of conceptual transfers and

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Leading through a Decade of Crisis—Not Bad, After All

Germany’s Leadership Demand and Followership Inclusion, 2008-2018

Valerio Alfonso Bruno and Giacomo Finzi

, political pressure, material benefits and side payments, alongside “unintentional” dimensions of power, such as emulation and non-decision effects. 26 Methodology and Research Design In this article, we developed the conceptual dimensions and the related

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Christopher Pittard

a tool for capturing criminals, but also a means of recuperating poor street boys” (28), embodying mid-Victorian principles of self-help and the emulation of middle-class values. National identity becomes imbricated in these values, with an emphasis

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Nicolas Sembel

. The two editors are complementary: Fournier, the author of Durkheim’s recent biography, now translated into English and awarded a prize by the American Sociological Association, 1 and Kraemer, the president of the Société d’émulation des Vosges. The

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Walking to Write

Following Patrick Leigh Fermor across Europe

David Wills

achievable journey, rather than the impossible emulation of his celebrated predecessor. His encounters with (fellow) Paddy-enthusiasts en route apparently leave him disturbed by their “cult-like intensity” (26). However, Hunt honors Fermor’s legacy at every

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“Amazing Rapidity”

Time, Public Credit, and David Hume's Political Discourses

Edward Jones Corredera

.” 107 Emulation would mutually reinforce the industry of every nation: “The emulation among rival nations serves rather to keep industry alive in all of them.” 108 In free trade, Hume found a self-reinforcing mechanism that would regulate the