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A. H. J. (Bert) Helmsing

The concept of social entrepreneurship and enterprise has enjoyed a meteoric rise. Its appeal extends over a broad ideological spectrum, and it embraces a range of activities, from solidarity economy to changes within the capitalist market economy. However, the growing popularity of social enterprise has not gone unchallenged. Some see it as the privatization of social choices that belong in the public and civic domain. This article asks: How is the social constituted in social entrepreneurship? After reviewing why social entrepreneurship has become an issue and exploring its various definitions, it argues that a dominant current in the social entrepreneurship literature glorifies the individual entrepreneur while underemphasizing the importance of social processes. Social enterprise is dependent on the social entrepreneur’s civic engagement in mobilizing support. This engagement is critical for the economic, social, and political sustainability of the social enterprise. For social entrepreneurship to enjoy success in a sustained manner, it must first and foremost be “social.”

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Z. Hidayat and Debra Hidayat

The notion of techno-entrepreneurship emerged when people began to use media technology in order to foster new ways of interacting, communicating, transacting, and building new habits or values. Technology is thus inseparable from society and

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From Chop Suey to Sushi, Champagne, and VIP Lounge

Culinary Entrepreneurship through Two Generations

Anne Krogstad

During the last twenty to thirty years, a quiet culinary transformation has been going on in Norway—one that is surprisingly unobtrusive and scarcely ever mentioned. Many Norwegians have acquired new eating habits and a multicultural cuisine, indicating acceptance and inquisitiveness—this in a country where just a few years ago red peppers were considered to be dubious vegetables. In this article, the entrepreneurship of a family that has stood behind much of this development—the ‘Wong’ family from Hong Kong—is analyzed. Criticizing the common emphasis on ethnicity and drawing instead upon a concept of ‘mixed embeddedness,’ the following aspects of the Wong family’s entrepreneurship are examined: niche expansion, cooperation strategies, management in a spatial context, concept development, clientele, personnel, and market positioning. To the degree that ethnicity is included, the suggestion is to study whether and how ethnicity, together with the other aspects mentioned, is relevant in the making of profit and control.

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Weaving Threads between the Ethnic and the Global

African Women’s Entrepreneurial Ventures in Athens

Marina Petronoti

This article addresses hairdressing as a forum in which African women running small salons in Athens negotiate identity and raise claims to modernity. The specificity of their entrepreneurial activities lies in that they occur at a time when the incorporation of ethnic modes of adornment in Western fashion captures Greeks' interest, but prevailing policies curtail the rights of displaced populations and look down upon their traditional performances. In this sense, my analysis touches upon issues of analytical importance to the ethnography on immigration in Greece. It exemplifies how African entrepreneurs diffuse seeds of their cultural legacy in the lifestyle of otherwise dismissive hosts as well as the multiple repercussions that their involvement in a major domain of consumption have on stereotypical imageries of and attitudes towards the Other.

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Ritual and commemoration in contemporary Russia

State-church relationships and the vernacularization of the politics of memory

Tobias Köllner

Since state atheism was abandoned in the 1990s, the Russian Federation entered what can be called a postsecular phase. Religion, formerly limited to the private sphere, reappeared in the public and underwent an astonishing religious revival. During the time of my fieldwork in 2006/2007, a tendency to favor the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC) and to facilitate its return to the public reached its climax. In this article I draw attention to how the political, the secular, and the religious are interconnected and allow for new vernacular forms of legitimating power and authority. One example is the introduction of new public holidays and public rituals. They connect local and national narratives and relate to ideas about the communality of the Russian people. They create new forms of a divine kinship, which draw heavily on religious and national symbols and merge the sacred and the profane.

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Re-siting corporate responsibility

The making of South Africa's Avon entrepreneurs

Catherine Dolan and Mary Johnstone-Louis

The bottom-of-the-pyramid (BOP) approach is championed as a way to deliver both corporate profits and poverty reduction. This article explores how “the poor” are repurposed as the instruments of ethical capitalism through the archetypal BOP model—Avon Cosmetics. A harbinger of “compassionate capitalism,” Avon has long stylized its entrepreneurial opportunity as a channel to a transcendent realm of self-actualization and social transformation. The company pursues this vision through a set of discourses and calculative practices that aim to produce industrious, self-disciplined, and empowered “entrepreneurs.” However, while BOP systems like Avon may provide a viable income stream for “poor” women, the practices through which women are “converted” into enterprising subjects can confound their intended “empowerment” effects. The article suggests that while targeting the “bottom of the pyramid” may elide the distinction between the maximization of profit and the imperatives of sustainable development, devolving corporate social responsibility (CSR) to the “entrepreneurial poor” raises questions about the implications of “making poverty business.”

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Amotz Giladi

Israeli poet Yonatan Ratosh was the leader of the Young Hebrews, a nationalist group active from the 1940s to the 1970s. Despite his opposition to Zionism and his aspiration to revive the ancient Hebrews’ premonotheistic civilization, Ratosh shared Zionism’s ambition to elaborate a new Israeli identity. One prominent act of this mission involved enlarging the literary corpus in Hebrew through translation. Although initially a means of income, for Ratosh translation increasingly came to be a way to express his ideological position and his self-image as an intellectual. Thus, Ratosh provides an example of how developing a national identity can coincide with appropriating foreign literature. With his regular exhortations that Hebrew readers attain knowledge of foreign cultures, Ratosh did not intend to promote cosmopolitanism. Rather, he considered these endeavors as ultimately reinforcing a “Hebrew” identity.

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Narratives of Development

An Anthropological Investigation into Narratives as a Source of Enquiry in Development Planning

Taapsi Ramchandani

entrepreneurship. ‘Development’ in twenty-first-century Chaguanas was being defined within the confines of what the ‘strengths, cultures, pathologies’ (Li 2007: 232) of the MSE sector were. Both sets of narratives – narratives of enterprise and stimulus – reveal

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Made in Nigeria

Duress and Upwardly Mobile Youth in the Biography of a Young Entrepreneur in Enugu

Inge Ligtvoet

constraining sociopolitical structures by making decisions that would eventually bring him some sort of prosperity and status—for example, his decision to educate himself, and his choice for entrepreneurship over crime (unlike the choice many of his peers made

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Yngve Lithman

During the last twenty to thirty years, a quiet culinary transformation has been going on in Norway—one that is surprisingly unobtrusive and scarcely ever mentioned. Many Norwegians have acquired new eating habits and a multicultural cuisine, indicating acceptance and inquisitiveness—this in a country where just a few years ago red peppers were considered to be dubious vegetables. In this article, the entrepreneurship of a family that has stood behind much of this development—the ‘Wong’ family from Hong Kong—is analyzed. Criticizing the common emphasis on ethnicity and drawing instead upon a concept of ‘mixed embeddedness,’ the following aspects of the Wong family’s entrepreneurship are examined: niche expansion, cooperation strategies, management in a spatial context, concept development, clientele, personnel, and market positioning. To the degree that ethnicity is included, the suggestion is to study whether and how ethnicity, together with the other aspects mentioned, is relevant in the making of profit and control.