facilitates tourism development. We investigate environmental movement engagement in issues related to energy and tourism development in Norway and Iceland by bridging the social movement societies (SMSoc) and the players and arenas perspectives. While there
Connecting the Social Movement Societies and Players and Arenas Perspectives
Mark C.J. Stoddart, Alice Mattoni, and Elahe Nezhadhossein
Malta’s Front Harsien ODZ
feat that after recent environmental failures, the environmental movement has something supported by the media, by the people, a three-thousand-person protest.” Another activist added that “Malta has never seen anything like it. It is a much more
Performance, Power, Exclusion, and Expansion in Anthropological Accounts of Protests
This introductory article offers a theoretical frame for the current special section, discussing protests’ value for analyzing performance, power, expansion, and exclusion, and contributes its own case study from the ongoing anti-logging protests in Estonia. While arising from power imbalances, protests hold powerful tools for achieving their aims. The introduction considers protests’ ability to expand in space, through time, and beyond topics, and to capture wider support, creating communities in the process. At the same time, considering the contexts of protests, it also demonstrates how such movements get caught up in the normative features of human sociality, reproducing the existing power relations, including those the protests aim to challenge. The Estonian case study enables further insight into this by analyzing dispossessions that protests both aggravate and suffer from.
Whiteness, Settler Coloniality, and the Mainstream Environmental Movement
Joe Curnow and Anjali Helferty
bring together historically distinct social movements: the mainstream environmental movement, the environmental justice movement, and Indigenous resurgence and sovereignty movements. They represent the potential for a shift toward reconciliation and
The death of American environmentalism has recently been proclaimed by some commentators (Schellenberger and Nordhaus 2005). Such declarations tend to be limiting because they fail to explore and evaluate the historical context of international, national, and regional social forces and social changes that shaped the American environmental movement over the past century. In this essay, I propose to explore the important question of the decline of American environmentalism within the context of a recurring theme pursued by the American movement: the protection of places wherein we dwell. David Brower has called this the practice of Conservation, Preservation, and Restoration, or CPR (Brower 1995).
An Indigenous Critique of the North American Model of Wildlife Conservation
Lauren Eichler and David Baumeister
Within the mainstream environmental movement, regulated hunting is commonly defended as a tool for preserving and managing populations of wild animals for future generations. We argue that this justification, encapsulated in the seven principles of the North American Model of Wildlife Conservation, perpetuates settler colonialism—an institutional and theoretical apparatus that systemically eliminates Indigenous peoples, expropriates Indigenous lands, and disqualifies Indigenous worldviews—insofar as it manifests an anthropocentric ideology that objectifies hunted animals as “natural resources” to be extracted. Because this ideology is antithetical to Indigenous views, its imposition through hunting regulation interrupts Indigenous lifeways, contributing to the destruction of Indigenous identity.
In this essay I examine the dispute between the German Green
Party and some of the country’s environmental nongovernmental
organizations (NGOs) over the March 2001 renewal of rail shipments
of highly radioactive wastes to Gorleben. My purpose in
doing so is to test John Dryzek’s 1996 claim that environmentalists
ought to beware of what they wish for concerning inclusion in the
liberal democratic state. Inclusion on the wrong terms, argues
Dryzek, may prove detrimental to the goals of greening and democratizing
public policy because such inclusion may compromise the
survival of a green public sphere that is vital to both. Prospects for
ecological democracy, understood in terms of strong ecological
modernization here, depend on historically conditioned relationships
between the state and the environmental movement that foster
the emergence and persistence over time of such a public sphere.
Rebecca Feinberg, Patrick Nason, and Hamsini Sridharan
In studying the lives and livelihoods of human beings, the social sciences and humanities often find their lines of inquiry tugged in the direction of other, nonhuman beings. When Claude Lévi-Strauss (1963) suggested that “thinking with” animals was relevant and fruitful to the study of humankind, scholars began to follow these leads with academic rigor, enthusiasm, and creativity. Propelled into the new millennium by the passion of the environmental movement, compounded by natural and anthropogenic disaster, and now entrenched in the discourse of the Anthropocene, recent scholarship has simultaneously called into question the validity of human exceptionalism and expanded our social and political worlds to include animals and myriad other nonhuman beings. This move is paradoxical: as the significance of human action on this planet has increased, the category of the human is continually challenged and redrawn. While contemporary posthumanist critique rethinks the importance of animals and strives to destabilize long-standing ontological exceptions, it does so just as the effects of human presence overwhelmingly single out our species as the dominant agents of planetary change (see Chakrabarty 2009; Steffen, Crutzen, and McNeill 2007).
Benjamin Abrams and Giovanni A. Travaglino
Briguglio’s “Digital Activism, Physical Activism: Malta’s Front Harsien ODZ” offers a focused analysis of a Maltese environmental movement organization. Briguglio’s analysis is at once an academic report and a form of movement writing, offering a careful
, an anti-establishment environmental movement raised concerns about risky technologies and industrial pollution, and a handful of scientists were beginning to speculate on the significance of rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Asimov