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Contradictions of Solidarity

Whiteness, Settler Coloniality, and the Mainstream Environmental Movement

Joe Curnow and Anjali Helferty

bring together historically distinct social movements: the mainstream environmental movement, the environmental justice movement, and Indigenous resurgence and sovereignty movements. They represent the potential for a shift toward reconciliation and

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Digital Activism, Physical Activism

Malta’s Front Harsien ODZ

Michael Briguglio

failures, the environmental movement has something supported by the media, by the people, a three-thousand-person protest.” Another activist added that “Malta has never seen anything like it. It is a much more inclusive movement than anything we’ve ever

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Introduction

Performance, Power, Exclusion, and Expansion in Anthropological Accounts of Protests

Aet Annist

Abstract

This introductory article offers a theoretical frame for the current special section, discussing protests’ value for analyzing performance, power, expansion, and exclusion, and contributes its own case study from the ongoing anti-logging protests in Estonia. While arising from power imbalances, protests hold powerful tools for achieving their aims. The introduction considers protests’ ability to expand in space, through time, and beyond topics, and to capture wider support, creating communities in the process. At the same time, considering the contexts of protests, it also demonstrates how such movements get caught up in the normative features of human sociality, reproducing the existing power relations, including those the protests aim to challenge. The Estonian case study enables further insight into this by analyzing dispossessions that protests both aggravate and suffer from.

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Bill Devall

The death of American environmentalism has recently been proclaimed by some commentators (Schellenberger and Nordhaus 2005). Such declarations tend to be limiting because they fail to explore and evaluate the historical context of international, national, and regional social forces and social changes that shaped the American environmental movement over the past century. In this essay, I propose to explore the important question of the decline of American environmentalism within the context of a recurring theme pursued by the American movement: the protection of places wherein we dwell. David Brower has called this the practice of Conservation, Preservation, and Restoration, or CPR (Brower 1995).

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Hunting for Justice

An Indigenous Critique of the North American Model of Wildlife Conservation

Lauren Eichler and David Baumeister

ABSTRACT

Within the mainstream environmental movement, regulated hunting is commonly defended as a tool for preserving and managing populations of wild animals for future generations. We argue that this justification, encapsulated in the seven principles of the North American Model of Wildlife Conservation, perpetuates settler colonialism—an institutional and theoretical apparatus that systemically eliminates Indigenous peoples, expropriates Indigenous lands, and disqualifies Indigenous worldviews—insofar as it manifests an anthropocentric ideology that objectifies hunted animals as “natural resources” to be extracted. Because this ideology is antithetical to Indigenous views, its imposition through hunting regulation interrupts Indigenous lifeways, contributing to the destruction of Indigenous identity.

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Christian Hunold

In this essay I examine the dispute between the German Green

Party and some of the country’s environmental nongovernmental

organizations (NGOs) over the March 2001 renewal of rail shipments

of highly radioactive wastes to Gorleben. My purpose in

doing so is to test John Dryzek’s 1996 claim that environmentalists

ought to beware of what they wish for concerning inclusion in the

liberal democratic state. Inclusion on the wrong terms, argues

Dryzek, may prove detrimental to the goals of greening and democratizing

public policy because such inclusion may compromise the

survival of a green public sphere that is vital to both. Prospects for

ecological democracy, understood in terms of strong ecological

modernization here, depend on historically conditioned relationships

between the state and the environmental movement that foster

the emergence and persistence over time of such a public sphere.

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Introduction

Human-Animal Relations

Rebecca Feinberg, Patrick Nason, and Hamsini Sridharan

In studying the lives and livelihoods of human beings, the social sciences and humanities often find their lines of inquiry tugged in the direction of other, nonhuman beings. When Claude Lévi-Strauss (1963) suggested that “thinking with” animals was relevant and fruitful to the study of humankind, scholars began to follow these leads with academic rigor, enthusiasm, and creativity. Propelled into the new millennium by the passion of the environmental movement, compounded by natural and anthropogenic disaster, and now entrenched in the discourse of the Anthropocene, recent scholarship has simultaneously called into question the validity of human exceptionalism and expanded our social and political worlds to include animals and myriad other nonhuman beings. This move is paradoxical: as the significance of human action on this planet has increased, the category of the human is continually challenged and redrawn. While contemporary posthumanist critique rethinks the importance of animals and strives to destabilize long-standing ontological exceptions, it does so just as the effects of human presence overwhelmingly single out our species as the dominant agents of planetary change (see Chakrabarty 2009; Steffen, Crutzen, and McNeill 2007).

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Tracey Heatherington

, an anti-establishment environmental movement raised concerns about risky technologies and industrial pollution, and a handful of scientists were beginning to speculate on the significance of rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Asimov

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Benjamin Abrams and Giovanni A. Travaglino

, Physical Activism: Malta’s Front Harsien ODZ” offers a focused analysis of a Maltese environmental movement organization. Briguglio’s analysis is at once an academic report and a form of movement writing, offering a careful deep dive into the processes of

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Shubhi Sharma, Rachel Golden Kroner, Daniel Rinn, Camden Burd, Gregorio Ortiz, John Burton, Angus Lyall, Pierre du Plessis, Allison Koch, Yvan Schulz, Emily McKee, Michael Berman, and Peter C. Little

environmental struggle is murky in Ecuador, as it is in much of Latin America, where resource populism has entered into crisis and the neoliberal Right is on the rise. Tammy Lewis’ historical-sociological analysis of Ecuador’s environmental movement offers a set