Epistemic beliefs are individuals’ beliefs about knowledge and knowing. Research assumes that epistemic messages embedded in learning materials shape learners’ beliefs. In order to provide information about these epistemic messages, this article analyzes 4,169 accounting exercises and 1,265 marketing exercises found in training textbooks for retailers, wholesalers, bank assistants, and industrial business management assistants. A latent class analysis identifies four types of exercises. The findings indicate that most epistemic messages emphasize knowledge that consists of stable, interconnected elements that are not useful for professional situations. Knowledge is transmitted by an authority and does not need to be justified. This article provides ideas on the basis of which exercises in textbooks may be revised.
Florian Berding and Ilka Lau
The Aesthetics of the Oppressed and Democratic Freedom
Gustavo H. Dalaqua
” (2007: 37). Fricker maintains that residual internalization makes one's affective states lag behind one's epistemic beliefs. Her description of residual internalization can be applied to Chuchu's case because, though he no longer believed that