As the act of driving becomes increasingly automated, vehicles will encounter situations where different objectives of safety, mobility, and legality will come into conflict. These situations require a vehicle to compare relative values of different entities and objectives, where the action of the vehicle has a moral component. While discussion of these scenarios often focuses on the “trolley problem” thought experiment, these types of life-or-death moral dilemmas may be rare in practice. This article identifies four far more common examples of routine driving that require decisions with some level of ethical reasoning about how to distribute risk. These scenarios may be useful for automated vehicle developers in assessing vehicle safety and responding to potential future regulations, as well as for regulators in developing performance requirements.
Plausible, Ethically Ambiguous Scenarios Likely to Be Encountered by Automated Vehicles
Sue Frohlick, Kristin Lozanski, Amy Speier, and Mimi Sheller
What mobilizes people to take up reproductive options, directions, and trajectories in ways that generate the possibilities and practices of mobilities? People’s desires for procreation or to resolve fertility challenges or partake in sperm donation, egg freezing, or surrogacy; the need for abortion services; and forced evacuation for childbirth care all involve movement. Reproductive aspirations, norms, and regulations move people’s bodies, as well as related technologies and bioproducts. At the same time, these corporeal, material, in/tangible mobilities of bodies, things, and ideas are also generative of reproductive imaginaries and practices. Reproduction is mobile and movement affects reproduction. Building from an interdisciplinary workshop on reproductive mobilities in Kelowna, Canada, this article aims to push the mobilities framework toward the edges of feminist, affect, queer, decolonizing, materialist, and nonrepresentational theories in thinking through both reproduction and movement.
Kathleen Frazer Oswald
Safety to National Security,” in Ethics of Mobilities , ed. Sigurd Bergman and Tore Sager (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2008), 39–64, here: 44. 24 Jeremy Packer, “Rethinking Dependency: New Relations of Transportation and Communication,” in Thinking with
Christopher Howard and Wendelin Küpers
Other Essays (New York: Harper 1977). 9 Martin Heidegger, Being and Time (1927; repr., New York: State University of New York Press, 1996). 10 See, e.g., Andreas Sphan, “Moralizing Mobility? Persuasive Technology and the Ethics of Mobility
Gendered and Racial Dimensions of Future Concept Cars
Julia M. Hildebrand and Mimi Sheller
Entstehungsgeschichte der Cultur aus neuen Gesichtspunkten (Braunschweig: Druck & Verlag von Georg Westermann, 1877). 34 Jeremy Packer, “Automobility and the Driving Force of Warfare: From Public Safety to National Security,” in The Ethics of Mobilities: Rethinking
Place Appreciation and Purposeful Relocation in Later Life
. Silverstein (eds.) ( 1999/2009 ), Handbook of Theories of Aging ( Dordrecht : Springer ). Bergmann Sigurd , and Tore Sager (eds) ( 2008 ), The Ethics of Mobilities: Rethinking Place, Exclusion, Freedom and Environment . Aldershot, UK : Ashgate
Walking and Looking in Ken Cockburn and Alec Finlay’s The Road North
Alice Tarbuck and Simone Kotva
’, 37. 40 Solnit, Wanderlust , 45–63. 41 Merton, Mystics and Zen Masters , 92. 42 Peter Nynäs, ‘From Sacred Place to an Existential Dimension of Mobility’, in The Ethics of Mobility: Rethinking Place, Exclusion, Freedom and Environment , ed. Sigurd