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Residential Segregation in Israel, 1961–2008

The Spatial Assimilation of Immigrants

Noga Keidar

While scholars study residential segregation dynamics in order to understand minorities’ assimilation into mainstream society, less is known about these mechanisms in ethno-national migration contexts. This article examines Israel’s demographic dynamics from 1961 to 2008 in order to evaluate and provide a framework for the process of spatial assimilation of Mizrahim and Ashkenazim in the context of segregation from the Palestinian citizens of Israel. By using the Theil index (H), I assess the level of segregation in different geographic layers and then explore how internal migration has reduced spatial distance within the Jewish society. The analysis demonstrates that despite the disadvantaged position of Mizrahim as of 1961, levels of residential segregation had decreased by 1983. Also, boundaries changed from a variance between Mizrahim and Ashkenazim into a variance among Mizrahim only, with those who relocated as the most spatially assimilated group and those who remained as the most segregated one.

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The Mule Caravans of Western Yunnan

An Oral History of the Muleteers of Zhaozhou

Ma Jianxiong and Ma Cunzhao

Mule caravans established a network across physical, political, and ethnic boundaries that integrated Southwest China, Southeast Asia, and Tibet. This article is a first exploration of this little-known mobile network. Based mainly on oral history, it focuses on the mule caravans based in Zhaozhou in western Yunnan from the late Qing to the 1940s, when the first motor roads were constructed. The investigation assembles horse and mule technologies and trade organization in detail in order to reconstruct the role and standing of transporters and their networks in local society, in the regional setting, in a volatile political environment, and in the face of challenging natural conditions.

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Hybridization and Purification

The Experiences of Mizrachi Middle-Class Adolescents in Israel

Guy Abutbul Selinger

In contrast to the view, expressed widely in public and in academic discourses, that ethnic categories are no longer significant in explaining Israeli social processes and that ethnic relations have become less hierarchical, this study demonstrates the continuing importance of ethnicity and hierarchical relations in Israeli society. Their importance is reflected in the social processes undergone by middle-class Mizrachi adolescents. Mizrachi families endow their adolescents with family capital—that is, social and cultural patterns—similar to that of middle-class Ashkenazi families. However, because these social and cultural patterns are identified as Ashkenazi, public discourses and practices signify for Mizrachi adolescents their ethnic identity and thus restore the blurred ethnic boundary. This signification is done through mechanisms of 'hybridization' and 'purification', as discussed in the article. These cultural mechanisms maintain the hierarchical relations between Mizrachi and Ashkenazi Jews within Israel's middle class.

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Developing a culture of marginality

Nepal's current classificatory moment

Sara Shneiderman

This article examines the complex relationships between marginalized communities, the state, and nonstate actors such as development agencies and social scientists in crafting the classificatory regimes that undergird affirmative action policies. Focusing on the current dynamics of “ethnic restructuring“ amid the broader political process of postconflict “state restructuring“ in Nepal, I suggest that international actors often unwittingly encourage the hardening of ethnic boundaries through development projects that target “marginalized“ populations defined in cultural terms. However, such interventions can also yield unexpected transformations in agentive ethnic consciousness. This ethnographic exploration of current classificatory processes in non-postcolonial Nepal provides an important counterpoint to material from the Indian context, where histories of colonial classification have debatably influenced contemporary categories-and their critique-to a significant extent.

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Analyzing African Formations

Multi-national Corporations, Non-capitalist Relations, and 'Mothers of the Community'

Caroline Ifeka

The West gazes hard at the continent it is has exploited for so long. Reflecting Western discourses of Africa as that ‘dark other’, texts use epithets immersed in preconceptions of Africa’s inequality: differences of race and religion, with Western ‘civilization’ standing for, and justifying, unequal power relations of apparent antiquity. Nineteenth-century Royal Geographical Society audiences, enthusiastic supporters of Britain’s growing empire and overseas Christian missions, learned from distinguished travelers about ‘the slave trade’, ‘ju-ju’, ‘paganism and devil worship’, ‘Mecca’, ‘the import-export trade’, ‘white traders’, and ‘black middlemen’. Favorite twentieth-century discourses included ‘black nationalism’, ‘weak states’ and ‘African indebtedness’, ‘corrupt government’, ‘ruthless multi-national oil companies’, ‘environmental pollution’, and ‘poverty’. Twenty-first-century researchers write of ‘endemic violence’ coalescing around inter-state international borders or intra-state ethnic boundaries; ethnic militants fight for ‘ethnic sovereignties’, jostling to wrest from the nation-state customary rights of ownership and control over ‘our god-given’ oil, clashing with giant multi-national corporations that lease from nation-state governments—not oil-producing communities claiming customary ownership—vast blocks of swamp, desert, and sea under which lies ‘black gold’ (Ifeka 2000: 452; cf. Hertz 2001: 194ff.).

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Shulamit Reinharz and Mark A. Raider, eds., American Jewish Woman and the Zionist Enterprise Review by Jerry Kutnick

Jacob Lassner and S. Ilan Troen, Jews and Muslims in the Arab World: Haunted by Pasts Real and Imagined Review by Seth J. Frantzman

Rebecca L. Stein, Itineraries in Conflict: Israelis, Palestinians, and the Political Lives of Tourism Review by Hadas Weiss

Anthony H. Cordesman, Arab-Israeli Military Forces in an Era of Asymmetric Wars Review by Eyal Ben-Ari

David Rodman, Arms Transfers to Israel: The Strategic Logic Behind American Military Assistance Review by Zach Levey

Risa Domb, ed., Contemporary Israeli Women’s Writing Review by Naomi Sokoloff

Yifat Holzman-Gazit, Land Expropriation in Israel: Law, Culture and Society Review by Donna Robinson Divine

Baruch Kimmerling, Clash of Identities: Explorations in Israeli and Palestinian Societies Review by Uriel Abulof

Nili Scharf Gold, Yehuda Amichai: The Making of Israel’s National Poet Review by Lisa Katz

Jakob Feldt, The Israeli Memory Struggle: History and Identity in the Age of Globalization Review by Miriam Shenkar

Anat Helman, Or v’Yam Hekifuha: Urban Culture in 1920s and 1930s Tel Aviv Review by Moshe Gershovich

Aziza Khazzoom, Shifting Ethnic Boundaries and Inequality in Israel: Or, How the Polish Peddler Became a German Intellectual Review by Dafna Hirsch

Leonard Grob and John K. Roth, eds., Anguished Hope: Holocaust Scholars Confront the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict Review by Ruth Amir

Tamir Sorek, Arab Soccer in a Jewish State: The Integrative Enclave Review by Sarah F. Salwen

David N. Myers, Between Jew & Arab: Th e Lost Voice of Simon Rawidowicz Review by Eran Kaplan

Alexander Yakobson and Amnon Rubinstein, Israel and the Family of Nations: The Jewish Nation-State and Human Rights Review by Eran Shor

Zvi Shtauber and Yiftah S. Shapir, eds., The Middle East Strategic Balance, 2005–2006 Review by Sergio Catignani

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Thomas Hylland Eriksen

widespread interaction, formal and informal, across ethnic boundaries. It is perfectly possible for a society, such as Mauritius, to celebrate cultural diversity and practise religious tolerance on an everyday level, and at the same time reproduce ethnic

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Navigating Unpredictable Sites

Methodological Implications of Positioning during and after Fieldwork in Conflict Societies

Eva Gerharz

, where mutual mistrust, deep polarization, stereotyping, and exclusion shape society, more often than not along ethnic boundaries? Positioning becomes a much more intricate venture because it implies not only that our relatedness in the field might

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Class versus Nation

A History of Richard Turner’s Eclipse and Resurgence

Ian Macqueen

importance but could in no way create the sense that the Republic would be overthrown by force any time soon. The apartheid government attempted to channel decolonisation and nationalism into narrower ethnic boundaries, through the policy of separate

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Michael Sheridan

boundaries as consequences of behavior, rather than preexisting conditions shaping behavior. Recent work on social and ethnic boundaries has generally followed Barth’s approach, while also asking when and how identity and boundary construction occur, and what