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Daniel P. Ritter

collapse.” This might appear to be a minor, linguistic point of disagreement, but I suggest that there is real value in maintaining the term “revolution” while recognizing that an undeniable evolution of the phenomenon has occurred over the last four

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Jaap Westbroek, Harry Nijhuis, and Laurent van der Maesen

ontologies that assume both the irreversibility of time (difference between past and future) and the presence of increasing levels of organization (evolution). Their research subjects and their contexts can—and do—change over time. Their experiments are

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The Mathematics of Evolution

Dreaming about Four Dimensions with Edwin A. Abbott and May Kendall

Wolfgang Funk

This article links the rise of non-Euclidean geometry with the ascent of theories of evolution in the second half of the nineteenth century, and argues that the upsurge of speculations on higher dimensional space figures as a corollary of the pre-eminence of Darwinian ideas in the late Victorian imaginary. It first provides a short sketch of the development of thinking in higher dimensions from Plato's 'allegory of the cave' to the late Victorian popularisation of the subject in the works of Charles Hinton and H.G. Wells. On this basis, it goes on to examine two literary texts from the 1880s, Edwin A. Abbott's novel Flatland and May Kendall's poem 'A Pure Hypothesis'. Both texts are premised on the assumption that there are different versions of the world with different numbers of spatial dimensions, and that through the faculty of dreaming it is possible to transcend the boundaries between these worlds. This article shows how both texts use this central conceit to pose serious questions about contemporary class hierarchies as well as the ethical implications of scientific progress.

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Torben Grodal

Book Review of Brian Boyd, Joseph Carroll, and Jonathan Gottschall, eds. Evolution, Literature and Film: A Reader (New York: Columbia University Press, 2010)

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Nicholas Parlato, Gail Fondahl, Viktoriya Filippova, and Antonina Savvinova

diminishment in the standing of Indigenous northerners in relation to both subsoil users and other national minorities. Despite the success of SR's TTP system, it may not persist in this form over time. The evolution of TTP formation procedures detailed in

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Torben Grodal

, and Sacred Symbols: The Evolution of Religion as an Adaptive Complex .” Human Nature 16 ( 4 ): 323 – 359 . Andrade , Eduardo , and Joel Cohen . 2007 . “ On the Consumption of Negative Feelings .” Journal of Consumer Research 34 ( 3

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Keith Alexander

Much more also remains to be learned about the evolution of the Left. During the time period addressed here, organizations that would eventually become part of the Green Party were sprouting up all across West Germany. Research at the local level will

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Gilberto Conde

demonstrations in the early months of 2011 rarely voiced religiously oriented slogans. Many early enthusiasts of the protests became skeptical of this evolution and stopped supporting the democratic transition in Arab countries. However, as Achcar (2013) has

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Menno W. Straatsma and Reinier J.W. de Nooij

Integrated river management is heralded as the new style of river management, but it has been preceded by a number of previous styles, and is unlikely to be the last. This article presents the first analysis of the evolution of river management using Spiral Dynamics (SD). SD provides a growth hierarchy of value systems (vMemes), reflecting increasing complexity and inclusiveness ranging from instinctive to holistic. Based on an interpretation of literature and policy documents, we conclude that (1) SD provides a broad interpretative framework that can be applied in all river basins, (2) river management in the Netherlands shows the subsequent dominance of the blue, orange, and green vMeme, yellow is at the take-off phase, (3) further transition to yellow integrated river management requires identification of barriers to change. We give an overview and policy implications. Further research should be oriented towards quantification of vMemes in stakeholders and landscaping measures.

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Yadin Dudai

This article proposes that a major drive in the fast evolution of cinema is that film uniquely fits, exploits and expands the potential of a specialized cognitive machinery in the human brain. This is working memory (WM), a limited capacity processing system that temporarily holds and processes on-line and off-line information under attentional control during the planning and execution of a task. A dominant model of WM depicts multiple components, including a central executive, subordinate workspaces for spatio-visual information and for sound and language, and an episodic buffer that binds episodes on the go and is capable of sorting them into long-term memory. The distinct generic attributes of film and their relevance to the subcomponents and operation of WM in the spectator are described. It is proposed that in watching a movie, WM operates in a special mode, dubbed the representation-of-representation (ROR) mode, in which normal motor response to reality is suppressed. It is further proposed that under proper contextual settings and mind set, the central executive of the spectator relinquishes control to the film information, culminating in a transient rewarding dissociative state. The usefulness of the model is discussed in the framework of the newly emerging discipline of neurocinematics. In evolutionary context, the interaction of film and brain is bidirectional. Film in its broadest sense is an extra-corporeal audiovisual space that allows the human brain to perform detailed past and future mental time travel which, unlike WM and human memory in general, has unlimited capacity, variability and endurance. This augments the original phylogenetic advantage that had probably led to the emergence of episodic memory in the first place.