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African Communitarianism and Human Rights

Towards a Compatibilist View

Munamato Chemhuru

That human rights are new, alien, and incompatible with African social and political reality is pervasive in much of African social and political thinking. This supposition is based on the assumption that African societies are inherently communitarian, and hence inconsiderate to the guaranteeing and safeguarding of individual human rights. However, I seek to dispel this essentialist notion in African social and political thinking. I consider how the human rights discourse could be reasonably understood in the African traditional context if the thinking that is salient in the African communitarian view of existence is properly understood. After considering the way in which human rights are guaranteed within an African communitarian framework, I give reasons why the quest for individualistic human rights in Afro-communitarian society could be considered to be an oxymoron. Overall, I seek to establish that an Afro-communitarian model is compatible with the quest for the universality of human rights.

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Katherine Morris

Gregory McCulloch’s recent book Using Sartre has the laudable aim of treating Being and Nothingness ‘analytically’.1 But, I think, he falls short of fulfilling this aim, and I want to try to bring this out in respect of his interpretation of Sartre’s treatment of the question of the existence of Others. McCulloch’s idea of ‘treating Sartre analytically’ is treating him as ‘one of us’ (US x), by which he says that he means ‘applying analytical techniques and standards of rigour to Sartre’ (Ibid.). ‘Bravo,’ one might say; but in practice, McCulloch slips into a more ordinary use of the expression ‘treating Sartre as one of us’.

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Assessing and Adapting Rituals That Reproduce a Collectivity

The Large-Scale Rituals of the Repkong Tantrists in Tibet

Nicolas Sihlé

with the enduring existence of the Ngakmang collective entity and are therefore perceived as crucial, in particular among the small group of tantrists who assemble each year, on the penultimate day of the ritual, to manage and reflexively assess the

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Collections without End

The Ghostly Presences of Captain Matthew McVicker-Smyth and his Western Australian Mineral Collection in the State Library of Western Australia

Andrea Witcomb and Alistair Patterson

The discovery of five photographs in 2018 in the State Library of Western Australia led us to the existence of a forgotten private museum housing the collection of Captain Matthew McVicker Smyth in early-twentieth-century Perth. Captain Smyth was responsible for the selling of Nobel explosives used in the agriculture and mining industries. The museum contained mineral specimens in cases alongside extensive, aesthetically organized displays of Australian Aboriginal artifacts amid a wide variety of ornaments and decorative paintings. The museum reflects a moment in the history of colonialism that reminds us today of forms of dispossession, of how Aboriginal people were categorized in Australia by Western worldviews, and of the ways that collectors operated. Our re-creation brings back into existence a significant Western Australian museum and opens up a new discussion about how such private collections came into existence and indeed, in this instance, about how they eventually end.

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Shahid Najeeb

The central thesis of this article is that psychoanalysis is an organic offshoot of that evolutionary process called religion. As such it has more in common with the world's religions than it would care to admit. Nor would the world's religions feel particularly excited about admitting psychoanalysis in their midst, for its inclusion forces a rethinking of their place in human development. Using Keats's "Ode to a Nightingale," the author looks at the pain of human existence and how it has resulted in the concepts of soul, God, and immortality. The nature of sentience—being aware of one's awareness—is examined. The article asserts that psychoanalysis is the process by which the soul examines itself, thought examines thinking, and life examines its meaning. The author describes religion, soul theory, and psychoanalysis as having evolved naturally and necessarily from human existence and experience, and views them as necessary dimensions of existence.

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Introduction

Minor Traditions, Shizen Equivocations, and Sophisticated Conjunctions

Casper Bruun Jensen and Atsuro Morita

This introduction examines the interrelations between the possible existence of multiple nature-cultures and the indisputable existence of distinct anthropological traditions. After offering some preliminary remarks on the problems with nature-culture, the article offers as an example the complex translations required for the Western idea of nature to gain foothold in Japanese anthropology. Patched together from Western and Chinese notions, Japanese ‘nature’ remains equivocal to this day. This equivocation, however, has also been generative of minor anthropological traditions. As this suggests, the advance of different concepts into new territories holds the potential for shaping ‘sophisticated conjunctions’ in which traditions are mutually modified, allowing new forms of nature and culture emerge.

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Linguistic Identities in Post-Conflict Societies

Current Issues and Developments in Northern Ireland

Freya Stancombe-Taylor

This article assesses the identity politics of language in post-conflict Northern Ireland, where language debates at a political level have been encased in questions of identity. However, despite the continued existence of ethnocentric narratives around language, opportunities have emerged for individuals to cross linguistic barriers and challenge the perspective that certain languages ‘belong’ to certain communities.

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Ilan Peleg

For the first two decades of its existence as an organization, the Association for Israel Studies issued its semi-annual publication on its own. The mostly informational tool, Israel Studies Newsletter, and its successor, Israel Studies Bulletin (which included brief essays and book reviews), facilitated a modest link among AIS members in between their annual meetings.

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Achebe's Spatial Temporalities

Literary Chronotopes in Things Fall Apart and Arrow of God

Harry Olufunwa

Human perception is most commonly shaped by the ostensible "concrete" nature of things, that is, by their existence at specific moments of time and in particular locations in space. In spite of longstanding philosophical enquiry into the issue of "whether time has a continuous or discontinuous structure", there is clearly a close correspondence between the progression of time and moment in space.

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Stefan Bird-Pollan, David Detmer and Elizabeth Butterfield

The Lived Experience of Existence: Fanon between Theory and Meta-Theory Review by Stefan Bird-Pollan

Farhang Erfhani, Aesthetics of Autonomy: Ricoeur and Sartre on Emancipation, Authenticity, and Selfhood Review by David Detmer

Jennifer Ang Mei Sze, Sartre and the Moral Limits of War and Terrorism Review by Elizabeth Butterfield