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From Ecuador to Elsewhere

The (Re)Configuration of a Transit Country

Soledad Álvarez Velasco

there is no place either for migratory restrictions or for any direct influence by US externalized border policies, both of which are key elements for understanding the configuration of countries of transit in the region. However, beyond the image of a

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When Transit States Pursue Their Own Agenda

Malaysian and Indonesian Responses to Australia's Migration and Border Policies

Antje Missbach and Gerhard Hoffstaedter

. Preventing asylum seekers from leaving Indonesia has been at the core of Australia's externalized border policies. Under Prime Minister John Howard, direct disruption campaigns, such as the sabotaging of boats, were used in Indonesia ( Howard 2003: 44