(about 1% explained variance, leaving 99% to other sources), suggesting that it has very limited practical importance. Besides, in many facial feedback studies, facial expressions were manipulated in a fairly transparent manner (by instructing
This article discusses experimental studies of facial imitation in infants in the light of Sartre's and Merleau-Ponty's phenomenological theories of embodiment. I argue that both Sartre's account of the gaze of the other and Merleau-Ponty's account of the reversibility of the flesh provide a fertile ground for interpreting the data demonstrating that very young infants can imitate facial expressions of adults. Sartre's and Merleau-Ponty's accounts of embodiment offer, in my view, a desirable alternative to the dominant mentalistic interpretation of facial imitation in terms of the theory of mind.
Reading Faces in Samuel Beckett's "That Time"
In his study of psychology in the 1930s, Samuel Beckett registered a number of ideas regarding the face. He took note of the Gestalt idea that the baby is born with the innate ability to distinguish the figure of a face from a blurry buzzing background. His interest was also piqued by the finding that one's perception of a facial expression might change depending on how much of the face is made visible. These ideas would influence his later work. Focusing on the short play That Time, this article looks at Beckett's dramatic presentation of a face alone in the dark. It compares Beckett's approach to face-reading with the study of the face that developed in twentieth-century experimental psychology. Beckett, I suggest, is working with the idea, common in experimental psychology, that facial expressions can be produced involuntarily and perceived effortlessly. However, he also draws attention to a more effortful mode of producing and perceiving faces. Finally, the article situates Beckett's portrayal of the face in relation to a modern culture that increasingly recognises – and celebrates – the face's unmanageability, but has not stopped attempting to manage the face.
Sermin Ildirar and Louise Ewing
asked their subjects to judge the faces. Despite the fact that the faces were identical, attributions of facial expression and mental state were altered when the faces were juxtaposed with contextual movies of different valences. Hillel Aviezer and
Alan Voodla, Elen Lotman, Martin Kolnes, Richard Naar, and Andero Uusberg
actors gradually displaying the facial expressions of happiness, anger, and disgust recorded under high- and low-contrast lighting. To unobtrusively assess the empathic reactions, we recorded facial electromyography (EMG) from three facial muscles known
A Naturalized Aesthetics of Film—Précis
emotion in film and the other arts as an extended experiment in the third cultural integration of ideas on emotion spanning the arts, the humanities, and the sciences. Here I explore, among other things, the role of facial expression in film in the light
reciprocal functions between narrative and performer is inspired by Noël Carroll’s (1993) theory of point-of-view editing. While Carroll views facial expressions as distinctive to certain categories of emotions, I will be drawing on a broader range insights
A Naturalized Aesthetics and the Challenge of Modernism
between reading text and watching images” ( Betz 2009: 50 ), they may distract us from visual details such as facial expressions, including eye behavior, that would otherwise provide useful cues for comprehending characters’ emotions. When it comes to
ways very different filmmakers use facial expression to achieve certain effects. Without neglecting the specifics of each case and the different effects on the viewer, the discussion illuminates the ways in which filmmakers tap into common (perhaps
Beyond the Kuleshov Effect
-of-view editing in accordance with Pudovkin’s descriptions and include film scholars on their research teams, a fourth experiment separated the object and the facial expression by approximately six seconds due to the technical requirements of a brain scanner