s, government-sponsored industrialization of French farming radically restructured rural society and rural landscapes. 7 Most French farmers, however, were ill-equipped to survive the cut-throat transition to high-yield agriculture. 8 Between 1954
The Secondary Residence in Postwar France
Transitions and Transformations in Basque Agricultural Practices
Meredith Welch-Devine and Seth Murray
In this article, we discuss the economic constraints and opportunities that Basque farmers in two neighbouring valleys in France faced before the 2003 reforms of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). In the last decade, constraints and opportunities have shifted, and farmers have diversified their economic strategies in order to cope with a rise in rural tourism and second home ownership, an expansion of leisure activities into what has historically been an agricultural territory, and the implications that the uncertain future of the European Union's CAP has for small family farmers in this area. We examine this diversification of household economic strategies to include non-agricultural activities and the implications it has for economic health and rural livelihoods in the Basque region.
The Construction of Gender in a Rural Scottish School
Fiona G. Menzies and Ninetta Santoro
initial remark about Anna not being a dancer, Jack constructs masculinity and femininity as binary opposites: farmers are masculine, and dancers are feminine. For him, one cannot be both a dancer and a farmer. Of interest here is that our analysis of
M. Guadalupe Torres-Jiménez, Rene Murrieta-Galindo, Beatriz Bolívar-Cimé, Astrid Wojtarowski-Leal, and M. Ángeles Piñar-Álvarez
inorganic fertilizers. Moreover, as pests become immune to chemical controls, farmers are forced to use more aggressive pesticides ( Díaz & Valencia, 2010 ). However, after some coffee farmers reported that the application of organic fertilizers (manure
Nguyen Van Suu
Đô'i Mó'i, the name given to the economic reforms initiated in 1986 in Vietnam, has renewed the party-state's ambitious scheme of industrialization and has intensified the process of urbanization in Vietnam. A large area of land has been converted for these purposes, with various effects on both the state and society. This article sheds light on how land conversion has resulted in farmers' resistance and in what way and to what extent it has transformed their livelihoods in the transitional context of contemporary Vietnam. The article argues that agricultural land use rights remain an important asset for Vietnamese farmers, containing great value and meaning for them besides forming a means of prod
Paul E. Farmer
What are the true costs of war? If anthropologists are to help answer this question, it will be because we can link personal narratives (and qualitative methods) to historically deep and geographically broad analyses of conflict. This essay seeks to explore the costs of armed conflict—the economic, affective, and general social costs of war—by examining the experience of a single family, two generations of it, caught in the midst of two conflicts. Their experience links the United States to Haiti, Cuba, and Iraq. As limited as conclusions might be, in reflecting on these narratives, we might still conclude that the true costs of war are rarely, if ever, gauged.
Riziki S. Shemdoe, Idris S. Kikula, and Patrick Van Damme
This article presents local knowledge on ecosystem management by analyzing and discussing traditional tillage practices applied by smallholder farmers as a response to drought risks in dryland areas of Mpwapwa District, central Tanzania. Farming activities in the area wholly depend on rain-fed systems. Information from key informants and in-depth household interviews indicate that farmers in this area use three different traditional tillage practices—no-till (sesa), shallow tillage (kutifua), and ridges (matuta). Available information suggests that selection of a particular practice depends on affordability (in terms of costs and labor requirements), perceived ability to retain nutrient and soil-water, and improvement of control of erosion and crop yield. In this area, smallholder farmers perceive no-till practice to contribute to more weed species, hence more weeding time and labor are needed than in the other two practices. The no-till practice also contributes to low soil fertility, low soil moisture retention, and poor crop yield. No plans have been made to introduce irrigation farming in these marginal areas of central Tanzania. Thus, improving the ability of the tillage practices to conserve soil moisture and maintain soil fertility nutrients using locally available materials are important tasks to be carried out. This will ensure the selection of practices that will have positive influence on improved crop yields in the area.
Neoliberal industrialization and the politics of land and work in rural West Bengal
This article seeks to understand why both anti-land acquisition protests and proindustrial rhetoric of provincial governments in India are fodder for populist politics. To understand this, the article explores the meanings that land and development have for the rural communities in West Bengal, India, who are trying to straddle the multiple worlds of farm ownership and nonfarm employment. Based on five years of ethnographic fieldwork in various parts of rural West Bengal, this article argues that resistances to corporate globalization, taken to be unambiguously anti-industrial or anticapitalist, reflect complex intentions. Protesting villagers are ambivalent toward corporate capital, but their support for industries and protests against corporations are grounded in local moral worlds that see both nonfarm work and landownership as markers of critical social distinction.
The Social Worlds of Wheat
been limited by the uneven coverage of the literature. I structure my analysis around three areas of scholarship. I start by looking at wheat as a seed, bringing to the fore the farmers, plant breeders, and crop scientists who see wheat in terms of
Collective responses to shrinking water access among farmers in Arequipa, Peru
Astrid Oberborbeck Andersen
cultivated by individual farmers. La chacra is a site of production, of cultivation, where soil, sun, water, hands, and tools work together to make crops: cauliflower, garlic, lima beans, potatoes, and alfalfa, a type of forage that feeds chickens, guinea