The relationship between Italy and Europe has changed since the 1980s. Where Europe used to provide a constructive external constraint (or vincolo esterno) on domestic Italian politics, now European constraints are less constructive and more problematic. At the same time, Italy has a more important role to play in contributing to European debates. The government headed by Matteo Renzi demonstrated both sides of this change in 2016. Renzi argued that European policies regarding macro-economic policy coordination, financial stability, and international migration did not help Italy. He also insisted that Italian proposals in these policy areas warranted closer European attention. Renzi was not successful in redefining Italy’s role in Europe, but he did win recognition for his efforts. The question is whether the government headed by Paolo Gentiloni will keep pushing in the same direction.
Beyond the Vincolo Esterno
French Financial Diplomacy from 1995 to 2002
In the mid-1990s, a series of financial crises placed international financial stability and North-South dialogue once again very firmly on the agenda of economic diplomacy. These had long been pet topics for the French: back in the 1960s, President Charles de Gaulle had famously clamoured for the establishment of a new monetary order; the summitry set up, on French initiative, in 1975, had been largely focused on exchange rate stability and North-South relations; in the 1980s, President Mitterrand had made repeated appeals for a “new Bretton Woods.” One could therefore expect the French to contribute actively to debates on how best to reform the international financial architecture.
Fabrizio Di Mascio and Alessandro Natalini
The modernization of the public administration has been one of the main objectives pursued by the Renzi government. What distinguishes the reform cycle launched in 2015 is the emphasis on centralization, unification, and the reduction of institutional fragmentation in the public sector after a long period in which autonomy and the organizational pluralism of administrations and government levels were enhanced. This reform strategy is consistent with the underlying trends of transformation in the political and institutional systems, in which the power of the prime minister has gradually increased. The actual impact of these reform measures, however, depends on concrete organizational instruments of subsequent implementing legislation in a context characterized by persistent spending cuts, which are necessary to maintain financial stability.
Yoram Ida, Amir Hefetz, Assaf Meydani, Gila Menahem, and Elad Cohen
, degree of compactness, peripherality, and financial stability. Questions included, for example, the following: How much would spending on social services or education need to be increased in an authority in Socio-economic Cluster 4 in order to equal the
Richard H. Robbins
IMF Global Financial Stability Report (2017) put it: “The environment of continuing monetary accommodation—necessary to support activity and boost inflation—may lead to a continued search for yield where there is too much money chasing too few yielding
influence as peripheral countries that became, at least in part, dependent on the institutionalized financial support provided under the European Financial Stability Facility ( efsf ) and the subsequent European Stability Mechanism ( esm ), established
1914; maintaining the gold standard had exacted a terrible price on those suffering deflation. The key to the pre-1914 world’s financial stability had been cooperation among central banks. 55 As John Maynard Keynes wrote in 1920, “Very few of us
A Small College’s Engagement with Refugee Resettlement
Diya Abdo and Krista Craven
goods by ECAR helped him develop financial stability within a few months of arriving in the US: I got a shelter from ECAR for four months. And that was most important on my side because it settled me, settled my life in ways, you know. And that four
Economies of Mercy in The Merchant of Venice
name of mercy, that Shylock is expelled, the wealth of the merchant prodigiously restored, and the financial stability of Lorenzo and Jessica granted. Coming in retaliation for the Jew’s rebuttal of Christian mercy, Portia/ Balthazar’s casuistic
Five Lessons from the COVID-19 Pandemic
Afsoun Afsahi, Emily Beausoleil, Rikki Dean, Selen A. Ercan, and Jean-Paul Gagnon
financial stability and control over their lives (Dean; Haagh, this issue). Lesson 4: COVID-19 has Demonstrated the Need for Institutional Infrastructure for Prolonged Solidarity COVID-19 has foregrounded the question of how we care for each other