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The Ecology of Images

Seeing and the Study of Religion

David Morgan

Opening with a review of leading accounts of the image as an object with agency, this article proposes to study religious images within the webs or networks that endow them with agency. The example of a well-known medieval reliquary serves to show how what I refer to as 'focal objects' participate in the creation of assemblages that engage human and non-human actors in the social construction of the sacred. Focal objects are nodal points that act as interfaces with the network, particularly with invisible agents within it. As participants in a network, images are like masks, offering access to what looks through the mask at viewers engaged in a complex of relations that constructs a visual field or the ecology of an image.

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Emotional Responses of Finnish and Spanish Audiences to Culturally Loaded Films

Jose Cañas-Bajo, Johanna Silvennoinen, and Pertti Saariluoma

collectivism (East Asia) and certain patterns of holistic versus local attention and thinking styles, such that Westerners seem to pay more attention to focal objects in a visual scene, whereas East Asians pay more attention to the background, and to the