similarity of this conception of the goal of analysis to the goal of Sartre’s existential psychoanalysis in Being and Nothingness . For Sartre, the goal of existential analysis is to bring to light the “fundamental project” as a way to comprehend an
A Defense of Lacanian Responsibility
A Response to Ronald Santoni on Bad Faith
bad faith is a fundamental project manifested in all our other projects is central to my interpretation, as Santoni points out (p. 48). 1 Indeed, one might even say that it is my interpretation's fundamental claim manifested in all its other claims
Can Being-for-itself Avoid Bad Faith?
Ronald E. Santoni
into the world,” the “primitive project” of bad faith, “one's fundamental project.” 4 How is this not part of one's “ontological structure,” i.e., of the ontological structure of being-for-itself? Webber and many other sophisticated critics may
The fiftieth anniversary issue of Les Temps modernes leads off with an article by Jacques Derrida, “‘Il courait mort’: Salut, salut. Notes pour un courrier aux Temps modernes,” a tribute both to Les Temps modernes and to its founder, Jean-Paul Sartre. For those who have followed what Derrida has said over the years, this “tribute” came as something of a surprise. Derrida, after all, had mocked Sartre as the “onto-phenomenologist of freedom,” always in search of a “fundamental project” that could explain an individual’s whole life; he called “daring” or “risky” Sartre’s criticism of Bataille for having a shaky understanding of German philosophical terms and concepts when Sartre himself had, in Derrida’s view, a very inadequate grasp of Hegel, Husserl and Heidegger.
Ronald E. Santoni
In a probing paper entitled "The Misplaced Chapter on Bad Faith, or Reading Being and Nothingness in Reverse," Matthew Eshleman challenges part of my intensive analysis of Sartre's "Bad Faith," arguing that bad faith is essentially a social phenomenon, and that social elements—the Other, in particular—play a "necessary role in making bad faith possible." Although I share many of Eshleman's interpretative points about the importance of the "social" in Sartre's account, I contend, here, with textual support, that Eshleman is too extreme, and slights the original bad faith to which human reality, in its very "upsurge" as consciousness or freedom, is "congenitally" (Spiegelberg) predisposed. My continued appeal to Sartre's concept of "initial," "fundamental," project, or "natural attitude" of consciousness to flee its freedom—what I have called ontological bad faith—becomes the crux of my critical counter-challenge to Eshleman's thesis.
Sartre's phenomenological ontology discloses that understanding consciousness and its mode of being requires an analysis of its relation with other consciousnesses. The primordial manner in which the Other relates to consciousness is through the look. Sartre claims that consciousness tends to adopt a pre-reflective fundamental project that leads it to view the Other as a threat to its pure subjective freedom. This creates a conflictual social relation in which each consciousness tries to objectify the Other to maintain its subjective freedom. But Sartre also notes that consciousnesses can establish a social relation called the “we” in which each consciousness is a free subject. While certain commentators have noted that communication allows each consciousness to learn that the Other is not simply a threatening object but another subject, communication can only play this positive role if both consciousnesses have undergone a specific process called conversion. Only conversion brings consciousness to recognise, respect, and affirm the Other's practical freedom in the way necessary to create a we-relation. To support my argument, I spend significant time outlining what conversion and the social relations created post-conversion entail.
In Being and Nothingness , 1 Jean-Paul Sartre claims that all love is doomed to failure. Love is another manifestation of the fundamental project to become God. To become God is impossible, yet it is what all humans strive for in their personal
An Appreciation and Critique
Ronald E. Santoni
seriousness’ is another ‘strategy’? Webber's statement that my fundamental project (note!) is presenting myself to myself and to others as having a certain kind of ‘fixed nature’, amplified by his statement that ‘bad faith as a fundamental project […] is
-wing publication Lotta Continua on 9 September 1977: libertà e potere non vanno in coppia . For Sartre, the only way to fully live in freedom was for human beings with similar fundamental projects to band together. However, Sartre, the eternal realist, did not
the future which has become past permeates the present and serves as a basis for the future. Therefore, progression transitions into regression, and the analysis of future objectives, the goals which belong to the fundamental project of the individual