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Transforming Practices of Masculinity

A Model based on Qualitative Research on Boys’ Education

Jürgen Budde and Thomas Viola Rieske

to support gender equality or a dissolution of gender norms are interrogated with regard to their potential to renew gender hierarchies instead of being analyzed with regard to their potential to dismantle them. From our point of view, however, a

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"Emo" Culture and Gender Norms in Late Adolescents and Young Adults

Noah N. Allooh, Christina M. Rummell, and Ronald F. Levant

The present study examined the extent to which youth who endorse emo subculture reject the traditional masculine norm of restrictive emotionality. It also examined the relationships between endorsement and rejection of emo subculture and traditional masculine and feminine norms and masculine gender role conflict. In Study 1 (N = 13) three focus groups were conducted to create the mixed methods Emo Culture Questionnaire (ECQ). In Study 2 (N = 164) exploratory factor analysis of the quantitative part of the ECQ resulted in a 15-item, 4-factor scale; however, due to low reliabilities, only two scales were used in the analyses. Three hypotheses were mostly supported. The endorsement of emo subculture by men was negatively associated with their Restrictive Emotionality subscale scores of both the Male Role Norms Inventory-Revised (MRNI-R) and Gender Role Conflict Scale (GRCS). The endorsement of emo subculture by women was negatively associated with their MRNI-R Restrictive Emotionality scores but was not positively associated their Femininity Ideology Scale (FIS) Emotionality scores. Negative views of the emo subculture by both men and women were positively correlated with their MRNI-R Restrictive Emotionality scores. An exploratory question found that the endorsement of emo subculture had significant negative correlations with three additional MRNI-R subscales and the total scale for men and with five MRNI-R subscales and the total scale for women. In addition, the endorsement of emo subculture had significant negative correlations with two FIS subscales, and with two additional GRCS subscales and the total scale for men. Qualitative results from the ECQ indicated that while the label “emo” may not function as a personal identifier, the music, fashion, and behavior thus identified remain popular.

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Rwandan Women No More

Female Génocidaires in the Aftermath of the 1994 Rwandan Genocide

Erin Jessee

Since the 1994 Rwandan genocide, the current government has arrested approximately 130,000 civilians who were suspected of criminal responsibility. An estimated 2,000 were women, a cohort that remains rarely researched through an ethnographic lens. This article begins to address this oversight by analyzing ethnographic encounters with 8 confessed or convicted female génocidaires from around Rwanda. These encounters reveal that female génocidaires believe they endure gender-based discrimination for having violated taboos that determine appropriate conduct for Rwandan women. However, only female génocidaires with minimal education, wealth, and social capital referenced this gender-based discrimination to minimize their crimes and assert claims of victimization. Conversely, female elites who helped incite the genocide framed their victimization in terms of political betrayal and victor’s justice. This difference is likely informed by the female elites’ participation in the political processes that made the genocide possible, as well as historical precedence for leniency where female elites are concerned.

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The Girl in the Hijab

Contemporary Feminist Perspectives

Claudia Mitchell and Ann Smith

thoughtfully. Structural forces like patriarchal gender norms, racism, and poverty undeniably shape the options available to minoritized women but, at the same time, these women are agents who make reasoned choices within their social contexts. In any attempt

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Who Says Only Men Have a Beard?

Revisiting the Question of Gender Ambiguity in Persian Poetry

Fateme Montazeri

patronage, conventions of Persian poetry, including gender norms, were extensively applied by poets of varying social strata, as attested by many non-professional poets whose names and works are collected in then-contemporary dictionaries, such as the

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Being a Girl Who Gets into Trouble

Narratives of Girlhood

Elaine Arnull

gender effects on crime. This article maps the lived experience of a group of girls against that framework. In the girls’ accounts we see how resistance to imposed gender norms leads to the sort of frequent and direct conflicts that bell hooks (1989

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The Pain and the Creeping Feeling

Skewed Girlhood in Two Graphic Novels by Åsa Grennvall

Maria Margareta Österholm

interpreted as feminist resistance. 30 For Åsa, Marris and Ullen, skewed girlhood is the reason for their being outsiders and, at the same time, when reclaimed, a means for community-forming and opposition to gender norms. 31 Åsa's mother is convinced that

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For the Father of a Newborn

Soviet Obstetrics and the Mobilization of Men as Medical Allies

Amy E. Randall

maternal and infant care also produced knowledge about reproduction and women's and men's bodies that informed Soviet gender norms and sexual behaviors. In addition, efforts to mobilize men contributed to broader initiatives to promote a new model of Soviet

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Motorcycling in 1980s Athens

Popularization, Representational Politics, and Social Identities

Panagiotis Zestanakis

women in Greek society. 87 If sitting on a motorcycle as a co-rider indicated a slightly provocative but sexy feminine identity compatible with traditional Greek gender norms and hierarchies in a time of liberalization, riding a big motorcycle was

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The Paradox of Gender Performativity in Winnie-the-Pooh

Krishnapriya Kamalakshan and Sumathy K. Swamy

Heteronormativity in gender is an ideology that was taken for granted as the norm until recently. Children are taught and trained to perform their gender through various means. If there happens to be any deviation from the society-set gender norm