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Susan Zimmermann

This study argues that the changing relationship between paid work, unpaid work and paid care work and social services, and the struggle over this relationship and its implications, constituted key factors in shaping the ‘state socialist’ gender regime in Hungary from 1949 to the 1980s. The study is based on a wealth of recent scholarship, original sources and Hungarian research conducted during the state socialist period. It tries to give a balanced and inclusive analysis of key elements of women’s and gender history in the state socialist project of ‘catching-up development’ in a semi-peripheral patriarchal society, pointing to constraints, challenges and results of this project. Due to the complex interaction of a variety of actors and factors impacting on and shaping the state socialist gender regime not all women were affected in the same way by state socialist politics and gender struggles. Women’s status and opportunities, as well as gender relations, differed according to class, ethnicity and economic sector. As a rule, the gender struggle over state socialist family and gender arrangements in Hungary sought to reduce or temper tensions and conflicts by avoiding substantial or direct attack against the privileges of men both within the home and elsewhere.

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Women's Work and Men

Generational and Class Dimensions of Men's Resistance to Women's Paid Employment in State-Socialist Poland (1956–1980)

Natalia Jarska

nd edition (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1995), 43–44. 4 Simic, Soviet Influences , 102; Susan Zimmermann, “Gender Regime and Gender Struggle in Hungarian State Socialism,” Aspasia 4 (2010), 1–24, here 12,

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Ajume H. Wingo

. Living in Truth . London : Faber & Faber . Hirschmann , N. 2002 . ‘ Towards a Feminist Theory of Freedom ’, in C. L. Mui and J. S. Murphy (eds), Gender Struggles: Practical Approaches to Feminism . New York : Rowman and Littlefield , 47

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Heidi Morrison, James S. Finley, Daniel Owen Spence, Aaron Hatley, Rachael Squire, Michael Ra-shon Hall, Stéphanie Vincent-Geslin, Sibo Chen, Tawny Andersen, and Stéphanie Ponsavady

activists by highlighting their common class and gender struggles against racism, helping to “shape the processes of solidarity that underpinned the foundations of black internationalism” (258). Focusing on the transnational influence of Garveyism and black

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Managing Mass Graves in Rwanda and Burundi

Vernaculars of the Right to Truth

Astrid Jamar and Laura Major

. 2017 . Memory and justice in post-genocide Rwanda . Cambridge : Cambridge University Press . Madhok , S. ( 2022 ). On Vernacular Rights Cultures: The Politics of Origins, Human Rights, and Gendered Struggles for Justice . Cambridge University

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Men and Masculinities under Socialism: Toward a Social and Cultural History

Peter Hallama

Influences on Postwar Yugoslav Gender Policies (Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018), 99–104; Susan Zimmermann, “Gender Regime and Gender Struggle in Hungarian State Socialism,” Aspasia 4 (2010), 1–24. 30 On the remodeling of the communist family immediately

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The Nineteenth Century

Not Forgotten but Rather Revitalized

Christine Haynes

leftism” imported from American universities, e.g., Norimitsu Onishi, “In Simmering Race and Gender Struggle, France Blames U.S. Ideas,” New York Times , International Section, 10 February 2021, p. A9. For examples of recent surveys of nineteenth